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XOR Linked List – Pairwise swap elements of a given linked list

  • Last Updated : 18 Jan, 2021

Given a XOR linked list, the task is to pairwise swap the elements of the given XOR linked list .

Examples:

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Input: 4 <-> 7 <-> 9 <-> 7
Output: 7 <-> 4 <-> 7 <-> 9
Explanation:
First pair of nodes are swapped to formed the sequence {4, 7} and second pair of nodes are swapped to form the sequence {9, 7}.



Input: 1 <-> 2 <-> 3
Output: 2 <-> 1 <-> 3

Approach: The problem can be solved using the concept of Pairwise swap elements of a given linked list. The idea is to traverse the given xor-linked list and select two adjacent pair of nodes and swap them. Follow the steps below to solve the problem:

Below is the implementation of the above approach:

C




// C program to implement
// the above approach
#include <inttypes.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
  
// Structure of a node
// in XOR linked list
struct Node {
  
    // Stores data value
    // of a node
    int data;
  
    // Stores XOR of previous
    // pointer and next pointer
    struct Node* nxp;
};
  
void pairwiseswap(struct Node**);
void swap(int*, int*);
  
// Function to find the XOR of two nodes
struct Node* XOR(struct Node* a, struct Node* b)
{
    return (struct Node*)((uintptr_t)(a)
                          ^ (uintptr_t)(b));
}
  
// Function to insert a node with
// given value at given position
struct Node* insert(struct Node** head,
                    int value)
{
  
    // If XOR linked list is empty
    if (*head == NULL) {
  
        // Initialize a new Node
        struct Node* node
            = (struct Node*)malloc(
                sizeof(struct Node));
  
        // Stores data value in
        // the node
        node->data = value;
  
        // Stores XOR of previous
        // and next pointer
        node->nxp = XOR(NULL, NULL);
  
        // Update pointer of head node
        *head = node;
    }
  
    // If the XOR linked list
    // is not empty
    else {
  
        // Stores the address
        // of current node
        struct Node* curr = *head;
  
        // Stores the address
        // of previous node
        struct Node* prev = NULL;
  
        // Initialize a new Node
        struct Node* node
            = (struct Node*)malloc(
                sizeof(struct Node));
  
        // Update curr node address
        curr->nxp = XOR(node,
                        XOR(NULL, curr->nxp));
  
        // Update new node address
        node->nxp = XOR(NULL, curr);
  
        // Update head
        *head = node;
  
        // Update data value of
        // current node
        node->data = value;
    }
    return *head;
}
  
// Function to pairwise swap the nodes
// of the XOR-linked list
void pairwiseswap(struct Node** head)
{
  
    // Stores pointer of current node
    struct Node* curr = (*head);
  
    // Stores pointer of previous node
    struct Node* prev = NULL;
  
    // Stores pointer of next node
    struct Node* next = NULL;
  
    // Traverse the XOR-linked list
    while (curr != NULL
           && curr->nxp != XOR(prev, NULL)) {
  
        next = XOR(prev, curr->nxp);
        prev = curr;
        curr = next;
  
        // Swap the elements
        swap(&prev->data, &curr->data);
  
        // Update next
        next = XOR(prev, curr->nxp);
  
        // Update prev
        prev = curr;
  
        // Update curr
        curr = next;
    }
}
  
// Function to swap two numbers
void swap(int* a, int* b)
{
    int temp;
    temp = *a;
    *a = *b;
    *b = temp;
}
  
// Function to print elements of
// the XOR Linked List
void printList(struct Node** head)
{
    // Stores XOR pointer
    // in current node
    struct Node* curr = *head;
  
    // Stores XOR pointer of
    // in previous Node
    struct Node* prev = NULL;
  
    // Stores XOR pointer of
    // in next node
    struct Node* next;
  
    // Traverse XOR linked list
    while (curr != NULL) {
  
        // Print current node
        printf("%d ", curr->data);
  
        // Forward traversal
        next = XOR(prev, curr->nxp);
  
        // Update prev
        prev = curr;
  
        // Update curr
        curr = next;
    }
}
  
// Driver Code
int main()
{
  
    /* Create following XOR Linked List
    head -->7 –> 6 –>8 –> 11 –> 3 –> 1 –> 2 –> 0*/
    struct Node* head = NULL;
  
    insert(&head, 0);
    insert(&head, 2);
    insert(&head, 1);
    insert(&head, 3);
    insert(&head, 11);
    insert(&head, 8);
    insert(&head, 6);
    insert(&head, 7);
  
    // Swap the elements pairwise
    pairwiseswap(&head);
  
    // Print the new list
    printList(&head);
  
    return (0);
}
Output:
6 7 11 8 1 3 0 2

Time Complexity: O(N)
Auxiliary Space: O(N)




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