Open In App

# XOR Linked List – Find Nth Node from the end

Given a XOR linked list and an integer N, the task is to print the Nth node from the end of the given XOR linked list.

Examples:

Input: 4 –> 6 –> 7 –> 3, N = 1
Output:
Explanation: 1st node from the end is 3.
Input: 5 –> 8 –> 9, N = 4
Output: Wrong Input
Explanation: The given Xor Linked List contains only 3 nodes.

Approach: Follow the steps below to solve the problem:

• Traverse the first N nodes of the Linked List using a pointer, say curr.
• Use another pointer, say curr1, and traverse the linked list incrementing curr and curr1 by a node after every iteration.
• Iterate until the pointer curr exceeds the end of the List, i.e.NULL. Once reached, print the value of the node curr1 as the required answer.

Below is the implementation of the above approach:

## C++

 `// C++ program to implement``// the above approach``#include ``#include ``using` `namespace` `std;` `// Structure of a node``// in XOR linked list``struct` `Node {` `    ``// Stores data value``    ``// of a node``    ``int` `data;` `    ``// Stores XOR of previous``    ``// pointer and next pointer``    ``struct` `Node* nxp;``};` `// Function to find the XOR of two nodes``struct` `Node* XOR(``struct` `Node* a, ``struct` `Node* b)``{``    ``return` `(``struct` `Node*)((``uintptr_t``)(a) ^ (``uintptr_t``)(b));``}` `// Function to insert a node with``// given value at given position``struct` `Node* insert(``struct` `Node** head, ``int` `value)``{` `    ``// If XOR linked list is empty``    ``if` `(*head == NULL) {` `        ``// Initialize a new Node``        ``struct` `Node* node = ``new` `Node;` `        ``// Stores data value in``        ``// the node``        ``node->data = value;` `        ``// Stores XOR of previous``        ``// and next pointer``        ``node->nxp = XOR(NULL, NULL);` `        ``// Update pointer of head node``        ``*head = node;``    ``}` `    ``// If the XOR linked list``    ``// is not empty``    ``else` `{` `        ``// Stores the address``        ``// of current node``        ``struct` `Node* curr = *head;` `        ``// Stores the address``        ``// of previous node``        ``struct` `Node* prev = NULL;` `        ``// Initialize a new Node``        ``struct` `Node* node``            ``= ``new` `Node();` `        ``// Update curr node address``        ``curr->nxp = XOR(node, XOR(NULL, curr->nxp));` `        ``// Update new node address``        ``node->nxp = XOR(NULL, curr);` `        ``// Update head``        ``*head = node;` `        ``// Update data value of``        ``// current node``        ``node->data = value;``    ``}``    ``return` `*head;``}` `// Function to print elements of``// the XOR Linked List``void` `printList(``struct` `Node** head)``{``    ``// Stores XOR pointer``    ``// in current node``    ``struct` `Node* curr = *head;` `    ``// Stores XOR pointer of``    ``// in previous Node``    ``struct` `Node* prev = NULL;` `    ``// Stores XOR pointer of``    ``// in next node``    ``struct` `Node* next;` `    ``// Traverse XOR linked list``    ``while` `(curr != NULL) {` `        ``// Print current node``        ``cout << curr->data << ``" "` `;` `        ``// Forward traversal``        ``next = XOR(prev, curr->nxp);` `        ``// Update prev``        ``prev = curr;` `        ``// Update curr``        ``curr = next;``    ``}``}``struct` `Node* NthNode(``struct` `Node** head, ``int` `N)``{``    ``int` `count = 0;` `    ``// Stores XOR pointer``    ``// in current node``    ``struct` `Node* curr = *head;``    ``struct` `Node* curr1 = *head;` `    ``// Stores XOR pointer of``    ``// in previous Node``    ``struct` `Node* prev = NULL;``    ``struct` `Node* prev1 = NULL;` `    ``// Stores XOR pointer of``    ``// in next node``    ``struct` `Node* next;``    ``struct` `Node* next1;` `    ``while` `(count < N && curr != NULL) {` `        ``// Forward traversal``        ``next = XOR(prev, curr->nxp);` `        ``// Update prev``        ``prev = curr;` `        ``// Update curr``        ``curr = next;` `        ``count++;``    ``}` `    ``if` `(curr == NULL && count < N) {``       ``cout << ``"Wrong Input\n"``;``        ``return` `(``uintptr_t``)0;``    ``}``    ``else` `{``        ``while` `(curr != NULL) {` `            ``// Forward traversal``            ``next = XOR(prev, curr->nxp);``            ``next1 = XOR(prev1, curr1->nxp);` `            ``// Update prev``            ``prev = curr;``            ``prev1 = curr1;` `            ``// Update curr``            ``curr = next;``            ``curr1 = next1;``        ``}``        ``cout << curr1->data << ``" "``;``    ``}``}` `// Driver Code``int` `main()``{` `    ``/* Create following XOR Linked List``    ``head -->7 –> 6 –>8 –> 11 –> 3 –> 1 –> 2 –> 0*/``    ``struct` `Node* head = NULL;` `    ``insert(&head, 0);``    ``insert(&head, 2);``    ``insert(&head, 1);``    ``insert(&head, 3);``    ``insert(&head, 11);``    ``insert(&head, 8);``    ``insert(&head, 6);``    ``insert(&head, 7);` `    ``NthNode(&head, 3);` `    ``return` `(0);``}`

## C

 `// C program to implement``// the above approach``#include ``#include ``#include ` `// Structure of a node``// in XOR linked list``struct` `Node {` `    ``// Stores data value``    ``// of a node``    ``int` `data;` `    ``// Stores XOR of previous``    ``// pointer and next pointer``    ``struct` `Node* nxp;``};` `// Function to find the XOR of two nodes``struct` `Node* XOR(``struct` `Node* a,``                 ``struct` `Node* b)``{``    ``return` `(``struct` `Node*)((``uintptr_t``)(a)``                          ``^ (``uintptr_t``)(b));``}` `// Function to insert a node with``// given value at given position``struct` `Node* insert(``    ``struct` `Node** head, ``int` `value)``{` `    ``// If XOR linked list is empty``    ``if` `(*head == NULL) {` `        ``// Initialize a new Node``        ``struct` `Node* node``            ``= (``struct` `Node*)``malloc``(``                ``sizeof``(``struct` `Node));` `        ``// Stores data value in``        ``// the node``        ``node->data = value;` `        ``// Stores XOR of previous``        ``// and next pointer``        ``node->nxp = XOR(NULL, NULL);` `        ``// Update pointer of head node``        ``*head = node;``    ``}` `    ``// If the XOR linked list``    ``// is not empty``    ``else` `{` `        ``// Stores the address``        ``// of current node``        ``struct` `Node* curr = *head;` `        ``// Stores the address``        ``// of previous node``        ``struct` `Node* prev = NULL;` `        ``// Initialize a new Node``        ``struct` `Node* node``            ``= (``struct` `Node*)``malloc``(``                ``sizeof``(``struct` `Node));` `        ``// Update curr node address``        ``curr->nxp = XOR(node,``                        ``XOR(NULL, curr->nxp));` `        ``// Update new node address``        ``node->nxp = XOR(NULL, curr);` `        ``// Update head``        ``*head = node;` `        ``// Update data value of``        ``// current node``        ``node->data = value;``    ``}``    ``return` `*head;``}` `// Function to print elements of``// the XOR Linked List``void` `printList(``struct` `Node** head)``{``    ``// Stores XOR pointer``    ``// in current node``    ``struct` `Node* curr = *head;` `    ``// Stores XOR pointer of``    ``// in previous Node``    ``struct` `Node* prev = NULL;` `    ``// Stores XOR pointer of``    ``// in next node``    ``struct` `Node* next;` `    ``// Traverse XOR linked list``    ``while` `(curr != NULL) {` `        ``// Print current node``        ``printf``(``"%d "``, curr->data);` `        ``// Forward traversal``        ``next = XOR(prev, curr->nxp);` `        ``// Update prev``        ``prev = curr;` `        ``// Update curr``        ``curr = next;``    ``}``}``struct` `Node* NthNode(``struct` `Node** head,``                     ``int` `N)``{``    ``int` `count = 0;` `    ``// Stores XOR pointer``    ``// in current node``    ``struct` `Node* curr = *head;``    ``struct` `Node* curr1 = *head;` `    ``// Stores XOR pointer of``    ``// in previous Node``    ``struct` `Node* prev = NULL;``    ``struct` `Node* prev1 = NULL;` `    ``// Stores XOR pointer of``    ``// in next node``    ``struct` `Node* next;``    ``struct` `Node* next1;` `    ``while` `(count < N && curr != NULL) {` `        ``// Forward traversal``        ``next = XOR(prev, curr->nxp);` `        ``// Update prev``        ``prev = curr;` `        ``// Update curr``        ``curr = next;` `        ``count++;``    ``}` `    ``if` `(curr == NULL && count < N) {``        ``printf``(``"Wrong Input"``);``        ``return` `(``uintptr_t``)0;``    ``}``    ``else` `{``        ``while` `(curr != NULL) {` `            ``// Forward traversal``            ``next = XOR(prev,``                       ``curr->nxp);``            ``next1 = XOR(prev1,``                        ``curr1->nxp);` `            ``// Update prev``            ``prev = curr;``            ``prev1 = curr1;` `            ``// Update curr``            ``curr = next;``            ``curr1 = next1;``        ``}``        ``printf``(``"%d"``, curr1->data);``    ``}``}` `// Driver Code``int` `main()``{` `    ``/* Create following XOR Linked List``    ``head -->7 –> 6 –>8 –> 11 –> 3 –> 1 –> 2 –> 0*/``    ``struct` `Node* head = NULL;` `    ``insert(&head, 0);``    ``insert(&head, 2);``    ``insert(&head, 1);``    ``insert(&head, 3);``    ``insert(&head, 11);``    ``insert(&head, 8);``    ``insert(&head, 6);``    ``insert(&head, 7);` `    ``NthNode(&head, 3);` `    ``return` `(0);``}`

## Python3

 `# Python implementation of the above approach.``import` `ctypes`  `# Structure of a node in XOR linked list``class` `Node:``    ` `    ``def` `__init__(``self``, value):``        ``self``.value ``=` `value``        ``self``.npx ``=` `0`  `# create linked list class``class` `XorLinkedList:`` ` `    ``# constructor``    ``def` `__init__(``self``):``        ``self``.head ``=` `None``        ``self``.tail ``=` `None``        ``self``.__nodes ``=` `[]``        ` `    ` `    ``# Function to insert a node with given value at given position``    ``def` `insert(``self``, value):``        ` `        ``# Initialize a new Node``        ``node ``=` `Node(value)``        ` `        ``# Check If XOR linked list is empty``        ``if` `self``.head ``is` `None``:``            ` `            ``# Update pointer of head node``            ``self``.head ``=` `node``            ` `            ``# Update pointer of tail node``            ``self``.tail ``=` `node``            ` `        ``else``:``            ` `            ``# Update curr node address``            ``self``.head.npx ``=` `id``(node) ^ ``self``.head.npx``            ` `            ``# Update new node address``            ``node.npx ``=` `id``(``self``.head)``            ` `            ``# Update head``            ``self``.head ``=` `node``            ` `        ``# push node``        ``self``.__nodes.append(node)``        ` `        ` `    ``# method to get length of linked list``    ``def` `Length(``self``):``        ``if` `not` `self``.isEmpty():``            ``prev_id ``=` `0``            ``node ``=` `self``.head``            ``next_id ``=` `1``            ``count ``=` `1``            ``while` `next_id:``                ``next_id ``=` `prev_id ^ node.npx``                ``if` `next_id:``                    ``prev_id ``=` `id``(node)``                    ``node ``=` `self``.__type_cast(next_id)``                    ``count ``+``=` `1``                ``else``:``                    ``return` `count``        ``else``:``            ``return` `0``        ` `    ``def` `NthNode(``self``, N):``        ``count ``=` `1``        ` `        ``# Stores XOR pointer of``        ``# in previous Node``        ``prev_id ``=` `0``        ``prev1_id ``=` `0``        ` `        ``# Stores XOR pointer``        ``# in current node``        ``node ``=` `self``.head``        ``node1 ``=` `self``.head``        ` `        ``# Stores XOR pointer of``        ``# in next node``        ``next_id ``=` `1``        ``next1_id ``=` `1``        ` `        ``while``(next_id  ``and` `count < N):``            ` `            ``# Forward traversal``            ``next_id ``=` `prev_id ^ node.npx``            ``if` `next_id:``                ` `                ``# Update prev``                ``prev_id ``=` `id``(node)``                ` `                ``# Update curr``                ``node ``=` `self``.__type_cast(next_id)``                ` `                ``count ``=` `count ``+` `1``              ` `        ``# Move 1 step forward because in python, prev1_id and next1_id are``        ``# starting from 0 and 1 respectively, and not with None.``        ``next_id ``=` `prev_id ^ node.npx``        ``prev_id ``=` `id``(node)``        ``node ``=` `self``.__type_cast(next_id)``        ` `        ``if` `not` `next_id ``and` `count < N:``            ``print``(``"Wrong Input"``)``            ``return``        ` `        ``while` `next_id:``            ` `            ``# Forward Traversal``            ``next_id ``=` `prev_id ^ node.npx``            ``next1_id ``=` `prev1_id ^ node1.npx``            ` `            ``# Update prev``            ``if` `next_id:``                ``prev_id ``=` `id``(node)``                ``node ``=` `self``.__type_cast(next_id)``                ` `            ``# Update curr``            ``if` `next_id:``                ``prev1_id ``=` `id``(node1)``                ``node1 ``=` `self``.__type_cast(next1_id)``            ` `        ``node1 ``=` `self``.__type_cast(next1_id)``        ``print``(node1.value)` `     ` `    ``# Function to print elements of the XOR Linked List``    ``def` `printList(``self``):`` ` `        ` `        ``if` `self``.head !``=` `None``:``            ``prev_id ``=` `0``            ``node ``=` `self``.head``            ``next_id ``=` `1``            ``print``(node.value, end``=``' '``)``            ` `            ``# Traverse XOR linked list``            ``while` `next_id:``                ` `                ``# Forward traversal``                ``next_id ``=` `prev_id ^ node.npx``                ` `                ``if` `next_id:``                    ` `                    ``# Update prev``                    ``prev_id ``=` `id``(node)``                    ` `                    ``# Update curr``                    ``node ``=` `self``.__type_cast(next_id)``                    ` `                    ``# Print current node``                    ``print``(node.value, end``=``' '``)``                ``else``:``                    ``return` `                ` `    ``# method to check if the linked list is empty or not``    ``def` `isEmpty(``self``):``        ``if` `self``.head ``is` `None``:``            ``return` `True``        ``return` `False``    ` `    ``# method to return a new instance of type``    ``def` `__type_cast(``self``, ``id``):``        ``return` `ctypes.cast(``id``, ctypes.py_object).value``    `  `# Create following XOR Linked List``# head -->7 –> 6 –>8 –> 11 –> 3 –> 1 –> 2 –> 0``head ``=` `XorLinkedList()``head.insert(``0``)``head.insert(``2``)``head.insert(``1``)``head.insert(``3``)``head.insert(``11``)``head.insert(``8``)``head.insert(``6``)``head.insert(``7``)` `head.NthNode(``3``)`  `# This code is contributed by Nidhi goel.`

Output:

`1`

Time Complexity: O(N)
Auxiliary Space: O(1)