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Working of the Government in India

Last Updated : 31 May, 2023
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India has a federal constitution. A federal constitution has a national or central government and also state or provincial governments. The framers of our constitution along with the federal system simultaneously succeeded in establishing state governments with a strong central government.  They have divided the powers of state and central governments by making lists regarding what comes under state control and what comes under central control. They are namely union list, the state list, and a concurrent list. 

Working of the Government

Working of the Government

Working of the Government in India

Indeed, the national government, like the vital government, includes three vital branches: the executive, legislature, and judiciary. Here’s a brief explanation of each branch:

1. Executive: The executive department of the national authorities is liable for imposing and implementing laws and regulations. At the helm of the govt department is the Governor, who’s the constitutional head of the state and represents the President at the country degree. The Governor appoints the Chief Minister, who’s the pinnacle of the nation’s government, and different ministers from the ruling celebration or coalition. The executive department is responsible for everyday governance, management, and selection-making.

2. Legislature: The legislature is the regulation-making body at the kingdom degree. It consists of elected representatives known as Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) or Members of the Legislative Council (MLCs), depending on the nation’s legislative structure. The legislature enacts legal guidelines, debates on important troubles, and oversees the functioning of the authorities. The Chief Minister and other ministers are usually participants in the legislature and are accountable to it.

3. Judiciary: The judiciary is liable for the translation of legal guidelines and the administration of justice. It guarantees that laws are upheld, resolves disputes, and protects the rights and liberties of individuals. The state judiciary incorporates the High Court, which is the very best judicial authority in the kingdom, and subordinate courts which include district courts and lower courts. The judiciary operates independently of the government and legislative branches to make sure impartiality and fairness in the legal device.

These 3 branches of the state authorities paintings in conjunction to preserve law, order, and governance within the nation. The executive formulates guidelines and executes them, the legislature enacts legal guidelines and sporting events oversight, and the judiciary translates laws and settles criminal disputes. This system of separation of powers helps maintain tests and balances and ensures functioning democratic authorities at the country level.


The executive consists of the Governor, the Chief Minister, and the Council of Ministers. They are responsible for the execution of central and state policies, decisions, and schemes. They are responsible for solving the issues and problems of the people and work for their development. 


The governor is a representative of the central government. He is like a link between the state and the center and is the representative of the president. The president appoints the governor. Governor has a similar role as the president in the center. He is the nominal head of the state. To avoid favoritism in the local politics the Governor appointed is usually not from his native state. Persons from different states are appointed as the governor. Sometimes common governor in two or more state also exists.  

Chief Minister and the Council of Ministers

The party that wins a majority of votes in the legislative assembly elections forms a government in the state. Usually, the leader of the party is nominated as the chief minister and he is appointed by the governor. Different major segments like education, water resources, women, food and agriculture, irrigation, etc., are formed as ministries and an MLA is appointed as minister of that concerned ministry. These ministers take responsibility for the proper functioning and development of that sector. Bureaucrats are appointed under them to assist the functions and administration.


Like the central government, our constitution opted for a bicameral legislature. At present, only 6 states namely, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Telangana, and Andhra Pradesh has a bicameral legislature. In a bicameral legislature, there are two houses which are the Vidhan Sabha and Vidhan Parishad. The members of the Vidhan Sabha or legislative assembly are elected by general election by universal adult franchise. The elected members are called Members of the legislative assembly or MLAs. For The Vidhan Parishad members, 33% are chosen by members of local bodies, and 1/12 are chosen by graduates of three years standing and living inside the state. 1/12 are chosen by teachers of three years remaining in the state, not lower in norm than secondary school. 33% are chosen by the MLAs of the state from among people who are not members of the assembly. The rest are selected by the governor from among people who have extraordinary or functional experience in various fields.

For the representation of people, the state is divided into different constitutions based on the population. Each constituency elects a representative who is an MLA.


The state has a judiciary with the apex court as the High court. It further has district and local courts. Each state has a chief justice who heads the high court. He and other judges are appointed by the president with the advice of the chief justice of India and the governor of the state. The high court deals with the original jurisdiction which are cases it hears in the first instance, appellate jurisdiction which are cases from the subordinate courts, and writ jurisdiction for the enforcement of fundamental rights. The Supreme Court is the highest judicial authority in the country and high courts are subordinate to it. 

The Role of Opposition

The role of competition is an essential issue of a democratic gadget. In a political context, competition refers to the political parties or companies that are not in power or do not keep the bulk in the legislative frame. Competition plays numerous essential roles in the functioning of democratic authorities:

1. Holding the government responsible: The competition acts as a check on the ruling party or coalition by way of scrutinizing their movements, regulations, and choices. They query the authorities, improve troubles, and highlight any perceived shortcomings or disasters. Through debates, discussions, and parliamentary strategies, the competition guarantees that the authorities stay transparent, answerable, and conscious of the desires and concerns of humans.

2. Formulating opportunity guidelines: The competition is chargeable for offering alternative thoughts, policies, and packages to the ruling birthday party. They provide exclusive perspectives and proposals on a way to deal with societal issues and challenges. By offering alternative answers, the competition fosters healthy political discourse and provides the electorate with one-of-a-kind options at some point in elections.

3. Representing various voices: The competition represents diverse ideologies, interests, and viewpoints within society. They function as the voice of folks who no longer assist the ruling party or its guidelines. The presence of a strong opposition ensures that different segments of the populace are heard and taken into consideration in the selection-making method.

4. Balancing power: In a democracy, energy-sharing is critical for balance and to prevent the awareness of power in a single celebration or individual. The opposition provides a counterbalance to the ruling birthday celebration, stopping any abuse or misuse of power. They play a position in making sure that the authorities operate within constitutional limits and adhere to democratic ideas.

5. Offering positive grievance: While the competition may also criticize the government, they also have an obligation to provide positive comments and guidelines for development. By supplying positive complaints, the competition can make contributions to the overall development and development of the united states.

Assembly sessions

The assembly meets at least two times a year with a gap of no more than 6 months. During these sessions, the ruling party puts for the major decisions such as budget, policies, and schemes to be introduced, and solutions for the existing problems. These are discussed among all the members of the assembly. The speaker presides over the session. The opposition raises the problems and the negatives of the existing policies or argues about the new s decisions that are introduced in the assembly. 
This process helps in bringing to the notice of the government the real problems of the people and solutions are put forth. For any bill to pass the members vote for or against it and a normal or special majority is required for a bill to pass depending upon the type of the bill.

Role of Press

The role of monitoring the actions of the existing government is not only done by the members of the opposition party. The press also plays a major role in pressurizing the government to solve the problems of the people and to bring their problems and issues into light. Press and media are also used as tools by the government to reach out to the people to explain the policies they want to bring and how they can solve the problems which are brought to light. In a similar manner public and social activists use the help of the press to get their problems into the eye of the government Press is like a two-edged knife to the government. The good and bad decisions are put forth without disparity among the people. This can equally gain the people’s trust and appreciation of the people or can get a negative opinion among them. So the government is always careful in making its decisions and tries its best to get a bad opinion among the people.

Related Links

  1. Roles and Responsibilities of Government
  2. Three Levels of Governance in India
  3. Parliament of India
  4. Power- sharing 

FAQs on Working of the Government in India

Q 1. What is the work of the government?


The government is responsible for the provision of services which individuals cannot provide for themselves, like the fire department, police department, and so on.

Q 2. What is the Indian government’s work level?


There are three levels of work levels which include the local government, state government, and also central government.

Q 3. How do all three types of government in India work?


The three types of government in India work in the following ways:

  1. Union Government: Union Government manages the issues of the country.
  2. State Government: State Government manages the issues of states.
  3. Panchayats and Municipalities: They manage the issues which are related to district levels.

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