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Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)

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  • Difficulty Level : Easy
  • Last Updated : 03 Jun, 2021
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Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is an infrastructure-less wireless network that is deployed in a large number of wireless sensors in an ad-hoc manner that is used to monitor the system, physical or environmental conditions. 

Sensor nodes are used in WSN with the onboard processor that manages and monitors the environment in a particular area. They are connected to the Base Station which acts as a processing unit in the WSN System. 
Base Station in a WSN System is connected through the Internet to share data. 


WSN can be used for processing, analysis, storage, and mining of the data. 

Applications of WSN: 

  1. Internet of Things (IOT)
  2. Surveillance and Monitoring for security, threat detection
  3. Environmental temperature, humidity, and air pressure
  4. Noise Level of the surrounding
  5. Medical applications like patient monitoring
  6. Agriculture
  7. Landslide Detection

Challenges of WSN: 

  1. Quality of Service
  2. Security Issue
  3. Energy Efficiency
  4. Network Throughput
  5. Performance
  6. Ability to cope with node failure
  7. Cross layer optimisation
  8. Scalability to large scale of deployment

Components of WSN: 

  1. Sensors: 
    Sensors in WSN are used to capture the environmental variables and which is used for data acquisition. Sensor signals are converted into electrical signals.
  2. Radio Nodes: 
    It is used to receive the data produced by the Sensors and sends it to the WLAN access point. It consists of a microcontroller, transceiver, external memory, and power source.
  3. WLAN Access Point: 
    It receives the data which is sent by the Radio nodes wirelessly, generally through the internet.
  4. Evaluation Software: 
    The data received by the WLAN Access Point is processed by a software called as Evaluation Software for presenting the report to the users for further processing of the data which can be used for processing, analysis, storage, and mining of the data.


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