Wireless/Mobile Computing Technologies
Computing Technologies are the technologies that are used to manage, process, and communicate the data. Wireless simply means without any wire i.e. connecting with other devices without any physical connection. Wireless computing is transferring the data or information between computers or devices that are not physically connected to each other and having a “wireless network connection”. For example, mobile devices, Wi-Fi, wireless printers and scanners, etc. Mobiles are not physically connected but then too we can transfer data.
Mobile is a computing device that not require any network connection or any connection to transfer data or information between devices. For example laptops, tablets, smartphones, etc. Mobile computing allows transferring of the data/information, audio, video, or any other document without any connection to the base or central network. These computing devices are the most widely used technologies nowadays.
There are some wireless/mobile computing technologies given below:
- Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) :
GSM is a Current circuit-switched wireless data communication technology. It is established in Europe by ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) in the mid-1980s. GSM network has 4 different parks that who’s functions are different: Mobile Station, BSS (Base Station Subsystem), NSS (Network Switching Subsystem), OSS (Operation and Support Subsystem).
As the name suggests, GSM is widely used for the mobile communication system. It operates in the frequency band 900-MHz, 1800-MHz, and 1900-MHz. GSM is developed using TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) for better communication using mobile. It is the most widely used mobile communication system and is mostly required nowadays. It can achieve maximum data transmission speed or data transmission rate up to 9.6Kbps (Kilobits per second).
- Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA) :
CDMA is a type of wireless computing technology. It is developed during World War II. This technology is mostly used as it provides better network quality, more storage capacity for voice and data communications than TDMA, decreases system noise and interference using power control, provides more security by encoding the user transmission data into a unique code.
CDMA does not provide any user with a specific frequency instead utilizes the entire frequency spectrum available for transmission. It operates in the frequency range of 800 MHz to 1.9 GHz. It uses Soft Handoff that reduces signal breaks.
- Wireless in Local Loop (WLL) :
WLL is a widely used technology for wireless communication systems. It is also called a Fixed Wireless Loop. WLL is very easy to develop and less time is required to install, very cost-effective as wireless systems are less expensive because the cost of cable installation is not added.
WLL allows users to connect to the local telephone station using a wireless link and provides advanced features of customer service. It provides high-quality data transmission and a high data rate. Generally, two types of WLL techniques are available: Local Multipoint Distribution Service (LMDS) and Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service (MMDS).
- General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) :
GPRS is a type of Packet-based Wireless communication technology. It is established by ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute). GPRS can achieve a data transfer rate of up to 114Kbps. It is very cost-effective, highly stable, can achieve a maximum data rate of up to 114Kbps (Kilobits per second). It supports Internet Protocol (IP), X.25 (standard protocol for packet-switched data communication), Point-to-Point protocol (PPP), and based on Gaussian minimum-shift keying (GMSK) which is a modulation technique.
The Gateway GPRS Service Node (GGSN) and the Serving GPRS Service Node (SGSN) are the two core modules required to enable GPRS on GSM network or TDMA network.
- Short Message Service (SMS) :
SMS is originally created for a phone/mobile that uses GSM Global System for Mobile communication). This service is used to send text messages even without the Internet connection between two or more mobile devices. This technique is very easy, user-friendly, comfortable and the most effective means of wireless communication.
In this service, less time is required for communication. It does not require any Internet connection for sending text messages. It allows the transmission of short messages i.e. up to 160 characters in length. SMS uses standardized communication protocols. SMS is received by Short Message Service Center (SMSC).