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Wild Life in India

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  • Last Updated : 15 Jun, 2022
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Wildlife abounds in India. It is a biodiversity hotspot, with ecosystems ranging from the Himalayas in the north to evergreen rain forests in the south, sands in the west to marshy mangroves in the east.

India is located in the Indo-Malayan region and is home to approximately 7.6% of all mammal species, 14.7% of all amphibian species, 6% of all bird species, 6.2% of all reptilian species, and 6.0% of all flowering plant species.

The forests of India are home to approximately 500 mammal species and over 2000 bird species.  India, like its flora, is a good habitat for Fauna, the collective animal lives. A wide range of animal products is used to benefit our health. More than 90000 animal species can be found in India. This country has approximately 2000 bird species that are classified as Avifauna. They constitute 13% of the global population. There are approximately 2546 fish species present, accounting for nearly 12% of the global stock. It belongs to the Pisci Fauna family. India also has a small percentage of the world’s amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, ranging from 5% to 8%.

Wildlife Distribution In India

  • Wildlife in North India

North India is rich in wildlife and provides a stunning image of Indian wildlife. North India’s vegetation is primarily deciduous and coniferous, and it is home to a diverse range of species. The North Indian area is home to over 500 animal species, 2000 bird species, and 30,000 insect species, in addition to a diverse diversity of fish, amphibians, and reptiles.

Elephants, tigers, leopards, snow leopards, chital, fox, Tibetan Sand Fox, Rhesus Monkey, langurs, jungle cats, hyenas, jackals, and other creatures may be found in North India’s fauna. North India has a fair number of national parks and wildlife preserves.
Corbett National Park in Uttarakhand, Dachigam National Park in Jammu and Kashmir, Great Himalayan National Park in Himachal Pradesh, Dudhwa National Park in Uttar Pradesh, and others are among the most popular sanctuaries in North India.

The Corbett National Park in Uttarakhand was founded in 1936 and is India’s first National Park. The park, which was designated a tiger reserve under Project Tiger in 1973, serves as a breeding place for the critically endangered Royal Bengal Tiger. The Jim Corbett National Park, nestled in the Himalayan foothills, is an important eco-tourism destination and one of the few areas in the country where you can see wildlife in its full grandeur. 

  • Wildlife in South India

In terms of flora and fauna, India’s southern region is one of the richest in the country. The Nilgiri biosphere is one of the country’s most significant conservation areas.

The Western and Eastern Ghats are both rich in wildlife and major conservation sites. Mudumalai National Park in Tamil Nadu, Bandipur National Park in Karnataka, Parambikulam National Park in Kerala, Silent Valley National Park in Kerala, Wayanad National Park in Kerala, and the Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary in the Western Ghats are some of the most important national parks and wildlife sanctuaries in South India. 

  • Wildlife in Central India 

Central India has a vast reservoir of flora and wildlife due to its diverse topography. There are around 35 wildlife sanctuaries in Central India dedicated to the conservation of rare and endangered species. A trip to Central India will provide you with an overview of the richness of wildlife in India. Kanha National Park, Bandhavgarh National Park, Madhav National Park, Sanjay National Park, Indravati National Park, Narsinghgarh Wildlife Sanctuary, Bori Wildlife Sanctuary, Pachmarhi Wildlife Sanctuary, and others are notable wildlife sanctuaries in Central India. 

Some of the milch animals provided by nature provide us draught power, transportation, meat, eggs. Nutritive food from the species of Fish . Many of the insects help us in the pollination of crops and fruit trees. In Ecosystem, Every species has an important role to play. Conservation of these species is necessary for the environment because the ecosystem has been disturbed by excessive exploitation of plants and animals resources by human beings. More than 1300 plant species are endangered and 20 species are extinct. 

Some of the main causes which are a threat to the Ecosystem are –

  1. Hunting of animals for enjoyment or for commercial purposes.
  2. Chemical and Industrial waste leads to pollution 
  3. Recklessly cutting of woodland and trees to bring land under cultivation and habitation.
  • Wildlife in East India

The eastern section of India has its fair share of wildlife as well. This region of the nation has rich and distinct fauna. In fact, some of the world’s most endangered species may be found in this region of the country. There are a number of wildlife sanctuaries in Assam, Bihar, and Bengal, some of which are important contributors to reviving diminishing species and protecting wildlife in India. Eastern India’s wildlife includes wild buffaloes, rhinoceroses, pigmy hogs, hispid hares, and other species.

The North-Eastern states have the highest bird biodiversity in the Orient, with up to 850 different bird species. Eastern India’s biggest wildlife reserves include the Kaziranga National Park in Assam, the Manas National Park in Assam, the Orang National Park in Assam, and the Sundarban National Park in West Bengal. Manas National Park, one of these, has been designated a World Heritage Site and is home to 55 animals, 50 reptiles, 380 birds, and three amphibians.

UNESCO has also designated the Sundarbans National Park as a World Heritage Site. The national park encompasses a 54-island archipelago in India and Bangladesh. The Sundarbans National Park is the greatest reservoir of wild tigers, with around 400 tigers at the moment. Rock pythons, water monitors, monkeys, and chitals are among the other animal species found in the Sundarbans. 

  • Wildlife in Western India 

The wildlife in western India is diverse and abundant. Western India is rich in flora and fauna, with several wildlife sanctuaries and national parks overflowing with Asiatic Lions, Blackbucks, Indian Wild Ass, Olive Ridley Turtles, Eels, Wolves, and Desert Cats. Western India also features marine wildlife sanctuaries dedicated to the conservation of endangered species such as Ridley turtles, prawns, sponges, green sea urchins, and dolphins. Gir National Park in Gujarat, Ranthambore National Park in Rajasthan, Bondla Wildlife Sanctuary in Goa, Bhagwan Mahavir Wildlife Sanctuary in Goa, and others are notable wildlife sanctuaries and national parks in the western region of the country. More than 300 Asiatic Lions and 200 leopards may be found in Gujarat’s Gir National Park. 

The reserve, which covers an area of 1,412 square kilometers, is the only one dedicated to Asiatic lions. Aside from lions and leopards, the reserve is home to 2,375 distinct species of fauna, including 38 species of mammals, 300 species of birds, 37 species of reptiles, and 2,000 types of insects, making this park a remarkably diversified area for wildlife in India. Another notable refuge in India that offers a wonderful view of animals is the Ranthambore National Park. Ranthambore is best renowned for its tigers and is located in the southeastern section of Rajasthan.  The existence of Wildlife animals in our country varies from place to place.

Sample Questions

Question 1: What are the Factors responsible for the change in the nature of vegetation in India?

Answer:

There are two factors which are responsible-

  1. Increased demand for the cultivated land , development of industries and mining , urbanisation and over grazing of pastures .
  2. In India , the large part of vegetation cover is no more normal in the real sense except in some accessible regions like the Himalayas , the hilly region of central India and the Marusthali where vegetation is still in nature.

Question 2: How the community can help the government to protect wildlife?

Answer:

Community can help government by taking initiative in government programmes such as

  • They can conduct awareness programmes in society about the wild life preservation.
  • They can promise or not to indulge in any type of hunting or cutting down trees.
  • Community can help the authorities to inform about the violated laws regarding wild life cruelty.
  • Communities can stop production and purchase of animal skin products.

Question 3: Why wildlife is important for human society?

Answer:

Wildlife is important because animals plays an important role in our life in many ways –

  1. Animals provides us milk and milk products .
  2. Animals also helpful in cultivating and ploughing the field in drought season .

Question 4: How many plant and animal species are in India?

Answer:

There are around 47000 plant species are found in India and There are almost 90000 species of animals found in India.

Question 5: Define bio-reserve.

Answer:

It is termed as the protected areas meant for the conservation of plants and animals. For example: The Sundarban in the West Bengal, Nandadevi in Uttarakhand


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