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Which are the major rice and wheat producing areas of India?

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  • Last Updated : 15 Jun, 2022
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A crop is a plant or animal product that grows in addition to being harvested for profit. Crops can be eaten or traded for a profit. Most farmers cultivate a wide range of crops in various fields. We can also cultivate a variety of farm products in our gardens by following proper harvesting processes. Soil is essential for the growth of many crops. Agronomy is the branch of agriculture that studies crops.

Wheat

Wheat is mostly a staple diet all around the world. It is grass that is often grown for its seed. Wheat commerce is larger than the total trade of all other crops. In 2020, the output of wheat was 761MT. It made the world’s second most-produced cereal behind maize. Wheat and other grain crop production have tripled since 1960, and this trend is expected to continue throughout the twenty-first century.

Wheat is a significant fodder crop in India. It is the second most important food grain after rice. It is a rabi crop that is planted in the winter. Northern Central India produces the majority of wheat, which is the most common food consumed by Indians. It contains a lot of carbohydrates, vitamins, and proteins, among other things. India is the world’s fourth-largest producer of wheat.

Conditions for cultivating Wheat

  1. Wheat cultivation necessitates a temperate climate with moderate rainfall. 
  2. The best temperature for the production of this crop in the winter is 10 to 15 degrees Celsius. The optimal temperature for growing this crop in the summer is between 21-26 degrees Celsius.
  3. The yearly rainfall in the area where high-quality wheat is produced ranges from 75 to 100 cm. 
  4. Wheat is grown on various types of crops with the best being black soil.
  5. Wheat should be grown in well-drained and fertile soil. Wheat cultivation is part of large-scale farming. 
  6. Extensive farming means that the amount of labor required for this style of farming is lower but the amount of product produced is higher. 
  7. Wheat is a crop that accounts for roughly 13% of our country’s harvested land. 
  8. Low temperatures, moderate rainfall, plain terrain, and fertile soils are all necessary for wheat farming.

Top Wheat Producing Areas in India

UP, Punjab, Haryana, MP, Rajasthan, Bihar, and Gujarat are the top wheat-producing states in India. After rice, it is India’s second most significant cereal crop. In the north and north-western parts of the country, it is the primary food crop. The Green Revolution’s success aided the growth of Rabi crops, particularly wheat. Some few government initiatives aimed at increasing wheat production are-

  1. Macro Management Mode of Agriculture
  2. National Food Security Mission
  3. Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana

Rice

Rice is the most widely consumed cereal grain by more than half of the world’s population, primarily in Asia and Africa. After sugarcane and maize, rice is the agricultural commodity with the third-highest global production. It is the most important food crop in terms of human nutrition and caloric intake, providing more than 20% of the calories consumed globally by humans. There are various types of rice.

Rice is a staple food for over half of the global population, not only India. Every day, almost 3 billion people eat cereal. It is one of the most water-intensive crops. Rice cultivation in India has been hampered by a number of challenges, the most current of which being a labor scarcity resulting from the COVID-19 Lockdown. In this context, paddy farmers in granary states like Punjab are being encouraged to use the ‘Direct Seeding of Rice’ approach.

Conditions to cultivate Rice

The temperature of rice growth during the country’s main rice planting season is known as Kharif, and the harvest season is known as winter rice. Rice can be planted at temperatures ranging from 25 to 35 degrees Celsius. Rice growth is influenced for a brief time in temperate climates, which is beneficial to rice growth. Low temperatures have an impact on all phases of rice production, reducing grain yield and yield.

Rice requires a considerable amount of rain, i.e. more than 100 cm. It can thrive in locations with little rainfall but plenty of irrigation. Irrigation was used to farm rice in Punjab and Haryana. Agriculture in many developing nations is still heavily reliant on rainfall. The equation may be misspecified unless rainfall is carefully introduced into the supply response function, resulting in elasticity estimations being off.

Rice may grow on a variety of soils, including silt, loam, and gravel, but impermeable clay is the best alluvial soil. Rice is grown in almost every state in India, but the majority of it is grown in river valleys, river deltas, and coastal plains.

Top Rice Producing Areas in India

West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab, Odisha, Karnataka, Assam, and Maharashtra are the key rice-producing states. China produced more milled rice than any other country in this harvest year, with 148.5 million metric tonnes. India came in second with 116.42 million tonnes of polished rice harvested this year.

Sample Questions

Question 1: What type of country is India, agricultural or industrial?

Answer:

Because agriculture employs two-thirds of India’s people, the country is designated as an agricultural country. Agriculture is the principal activity that produces the vast majority of the world’s food.

Question 2: Which crops are grown in rabi season?

Answer:

Wheat, barley, peas, gram, and mustard are all essential crops.

Question 3: Which are important Kharif crops?

Answer:

Paddy, maize, jowar, bajra, tur, moong, urad, cotton, jute, groundnut, and soyabean are all important kharif crops.

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