The composition of an element’s nucleus and the arrangement of electrons around it are referred to as its atomic structure. Protons, electrons, and neutrons are the building blocks of matter’s atomic structure. The nucleus of the atom is made up of protons and neutrons, which is surrounded by the atom’s electrons. The total number of protons in an element’s nucleus is described by its atomic number.
Protons, neutrons, and electrons make up the basic structure of an atom. The mass and charge of the atoms are provided by these fundamental components. The proton and neutron make up the nucleus, with the electron orbiting around it.
What is Chemical Combination?
When one element reacts with other elements to generate two or more distinct compounds, the mass of one element reacts with a constant mass of the other in a simple ratio.
A chemical reaction occurs when two or more elements or compounds combine to create a new product. When a combination reaction occurs between a metal and a non-metal the product is an ionic solid. Lithium interacting with sulphur to form lithium sulphide is one example. When magnesium is burned in the presence of oxygen, the metal’s atoms unite to form magnesium oxide.
Cause of Chemical Combination
Chemical bonding (or chemical combination) allows atoms to attain a noble gas electronic configuration and hence become more stable. Atoms share or transfer their electron in order to fill their outermost shells entirely and thus attain stability. Other than noble gases, atoms have unstable electronic configurations (their outermost shell is incomplete). The tendency of each atom to achieve a stable electronic configuration of the nearest noble gas is connected to the driving force for atoms to combine.
Laws of Chemical Combination
Certain basic laws regulate the mixing of different components to generate compounds. The laws of chemical combination are the name for these rules. The chemical combinations of elements are governed by five basic rules of chemical combination:
- Law of Conservation of Mass: This law states that matter cannot be created or destroyed in any way. To put it in other words, the total mass of the reacting mixture and the products formed remains constant. In the year 1789, Antoine Lavoisier published this law based on the data he gathered after analysing a variety of combustion reactions.
- Law of Definite Proportions: According to Joseph Proust, a French chemist, the proportion of components by weight in a particular chemical would always remain the same. In basic terms, regardless of the source, origin, or quantity of a compound, the % composition of components by weight will always be the same.
- Law of Multiple Proportions: According to Joseph Proust, a French chemist, the proportion of components by weight in a given compound will always be the same. Simply put, regardless of the source, origin, or quantity of a compound, the % composition of components by weight will always remain the same.
- Gay Lussac’s Law of Gaseous Volumes: Gay Lussac passed this rule in 1808 based on his findings. When gases are created or mix in a chemical reaction, they do so in a simple volume ratio if all the gases are at the same temperature and pressure. This law might be thought of as a variant of the law of fixed proportions. The main difference between these two chemical rules is that Gay Lussac’s Law is expressed in terms of volume, whilst the law of definite proportions is expressed in terms of mass.
- Avogadro’s Law: In the year 1811, Avogadro proposed this law. It said that an equal volume of all gases contains an equal number of molecules under the same temperature and pressure. This means that if two litres of hydrogen and two litres of oxygen are at the same temperature and pressure, they will have the same number of molecules.
Example of Chemical Combination Reaction
- The water molecule is formed when oxygen combines with hydrogen. It’s a mix-and-match reaction.
2H + O2 → 2H2O
- Calcium oxide is formed when the elements calcium and oxygen are combined.
2Ca + O2 → 2CaO
- Ammonia is produced when the elements nitrogen and hydrogen are combined.
N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3
- Calcium hydroxide is formed when calcium oxide reacts with water.
CaO + H2O → Ca(OH)2
- Sulphur trioxide is formed when sulphur dioxide and oxygen are combined.
2SO2 + O2 → 2SO3
Question 1: What is the cause of the chemical bonding (or chemical combination) of atoms?
Chemical bonding (or chemical combination) allows atoms to attain a noble gas electronic configuration and hence become more stable. Atoms share or transfer their electron in order to fill their outermost shells entirely and thus attain stability. Other than noble gases, atoms have unstable electronic configurations ( their outermost shell is incomplete). The tendency of each atom to achieve a stable electronic configuration of the nearest noble gas is connected to the driving force for atoms to combine.
Question 2: How many types of chemical combinations are there?
Combination, decomposition, single-replacement, double-replacement, and combustion are the five main types of chemical processes. Analyzing the reactants and products of a reaction, you can categorise it into one of these groups.
Question 3: What do you think the results would be if the a-particle scattering experiment was done using a foil made of a metal other than gold?
The results of the a-particle scattering experiment would be the same if any metal foil was used because all atoms would have the same structure.
Question 4: What are the atom’s limitations according to Rutherford’s model?
The electrons in Rutherford’s idea of an atom revolve in a circular orbit around the nucleus. Any rotating particle would experience acceleration and emit energy. The circling electron would eventually lose its energy and fall into the nucleus, making the atom exceedingly unstable. However, we know that atoms are extremely stable.
Question 5: Define valency by taking examples of silicon and oxygen.
The combining capacity of an atom is known as valency.
Atomic number of oxygen = 8 Atomic number of silicon = 14 K L M
Electronic configuration of oxygen = 2 6 –
Electronic configuration of silicon =2 8 4
The valence electrons in oxygen atoms are six (i.e., electrons in the outermost shell). Two electrons are required to fill the orbit. The valence electrons in a silicon atom are four. Four electrons are required to occupy this orbit.
As a result, oxygen has a combining capacity of 2 while silicon has a combining capacity of 4.
i.e., oxygen has a valency of 2 and silicon has a valency of 4.