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What is Data Encapsulation and de-encapsulation in networking?

  • Last Updated : 05 Nov, 2021

This article is all about Data Encapsulation and Decapsulation in Networking. Both encapsulation and decapsulation processes are simultaneously running over a network in order to make effective communication possible. Encapsulation is the process which is executed on the sender’s side whereas decapsulation occurs on the receiver’s side.  

Now, let’s look at the step-by-step procedures of Encapsulation and Decapsulation.

ENCAPSULATION PROCESS :
 

Step-1 :
The process starts from the Application, Presentation and Session layer in the OSI model or Application layer in TCP/IP model, takes the data input from user and adds a header section (optional) then forwards it to the Transport layer. 

Step-2 :
After this, further the transport layer again adds additional new information, called “segment header”. This whole data packet is called “Segment” and at the end while decapsulation, this information is required. Now, this data is passed onto the next layer in the model, Network Layer.

Step-3 :
Similarly, the Network Layer adds header and trailer sections in the “Data Segment” received from the Transport Layer and forms new entity called as a Datagram. This data is further passed onto the Data Link Layer. 

Step-4 :
Again, the Data Link Layer adds another field of data on the input received from the Network Layer. And this whole new data fragment is passed to the next layer, i.e. Physical Layer.

Step-5 :
At the end, the last layer Physical Layer adds the ultimate data in the input received from the previous layer. And the process of Encapsulation terminates. 

The whole Encapsulation process can be summarized in this picture. 

DECAPSULATION PROCESS :
 

Step-1 :
The process starts from the Physical Layer in the OSI model or TCP/IP model, takes the encapsulated data input signal and decapsulates the whole data into a Datagram and forwards it to the Data Link Layer.

Step-2 :
After this, further the Data Link Layer again cuts off additional new information. This whole datagram is decapsulated, analyzed and both header and trailer are checked, if everything is found correct. Now, this partially decapsulated data is passed onto the next layer in the model, Network Layer.

Step-3 :
Similarly, the Network Layer decapsulates header and trailer sections in the Data Segment received from the Data Link Layer is further passed onto the Transport Layer.

Step-4 :
Again, the Transport Layer decapsulates another field of data on the input received from the Network Layer. And further this data fragment is passed to the next layer, Application Layer.

Step-5 :
At the end, the last Application Layer completely decapsulates the data fragment input received from the previous layer. And the process of Decapsulation terminates.

The whole Decapsulation process can be summarized in this picture. 

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