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What is Backend Testing?

Last Updated : 13 Apr, 2022
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Software Testing is the process of verifying and evaluating the entire software or application to ensure that the developed software or product is working properly as per the requirements. There are many techniques of testing, various levels of testing, and testing processes. These are all carried out in the testing phase to check the entire developed product.

What is Backend?

The term backend generally refers to server-side deployment. Here the process is entirely happening in the backend which is not shown to the user only the expected results will be shown to the user. In every web application, there will be a backend language to accomplish the task.

For Example, while uploading the details of the students in the database, the database will store all the details. When there is a need to display the details of the students, it will simply fetch all the details and display them. Here, it will show only the result, not the process and how it fetches the details. 

What is Backend Testing?

Backend Testing is a testing method that checks the database or server-side of the web application. The main purpose of backend testing is to check the application layer and the database layer. It will find an error or bug in the database or server-side.

For implementing backend testing, the backend test engineer should also have some knowledge about that particular server-side or database language. It is also known as Database Testing. 

Importance of Backend Testing: Backend testing is a must because anything wrong or error happens at the server-side, it will not further proceed with that task or the output will get differed or sometimes it will also cause problems such as data loss, deadlock, etc.,

Types of Backend Testing

The following are the different types of backend testing:

  1. Structural Testing
  2. Functional Testing
  3. Non-Functional Testing

Let’s discuss each of these types of backend testing.

1. Structural Testing

Structural testing is the process of validating all the elements that are present inside the data repository and are primarily used for data storage. It involves checking the objects of front-end developments with the database mapping objects.

Types of Structural Testing: The following are the different types of structural testing:

a) Schema Testing: In this Schema Testing, the tester will check for the correctly mapped objects. This is also known as mapping testing. It ensures whether the objects of the front-end and the objects of the back-end are correctly matched or mapped. It will mainly focus on schema objects such as a table, view, indexes, clusters, etc., In this testing, the tester will find the issues of mapped objects like table, view, etc.,

b) Table and Column Testing: In this, it ensures that the table and column properties are correctly mapped.

  • It ensures whether the table and the column names are correctly mapped on both the front-end side and server-side.
  • It validates the datatype of the column is correctly mentioned.
  • It ensures the correct naming of the column values of the database.
  • It detects the unused tables and columns.
  • It validates whether the users are able to give the correct input as per the requirement.

For example, if we mention the wrong datatype for the column on the server-side which is different from the front-end then it will raise an error. 

c) Key and Indexes Testing: In this, it validates the key and indexes of the columns.

  • It ensures whether the mentioned key constraints are correctly provided. For example, Primary Key for the column is correctly mentioned as per the given requirement.
  • It ensures the correct references of Foreign Key with the parent table.
  • It checks the length and size of the indexes.
  • It ensures the creation of clustered and non-clustered indexes for the table as per the requirement.
  • It validates the naming conventions of the Keys.

d) Trigger Testing: It ensures that the executed triggers are fulfilling the required conditions of the DML transactions.

  • It validates whether the triggers make the data updates correctly when we have executed them.
  • It checks the coding conventions are followed correctly during the coding phase of the triggers.
  • It ensures that the trigger functionalities of update, delete, and insert.

e) Stored Procedures Testing: In this, the tester checks for the correctness of the stored procedure results.

  • It checks whether the stored procedure contains the valid conditions for looping and conditional statements as per the requirement.
  • It validates the exception and error handling in the stored procedure.
  • It detects the unused stored procedure.
  • It validates the cursor operations.
  • It validates whether the TRIM operations are correctly applied or not.
  • It ensures that the required triggers are implicitly invoked by executing the stored procedures.

f) Database Server Validation Testing: It validates the database configuration details as per the requirements.

  • It validates that the transactions of the data are made as per the requirements.
  • It validates the user’s authentication and authorization.

For Example, If wrong user authentication is given, it will raise an error. 

2. Functional Testing

Functional Testing is the process of validating that the transactions and operations made by the end-users meet the requirements.

Types of Functional Testing: The following are the different types of functional testing:

a) Black Box Testing:

  • Black Box Testing is the process of checking the functionalities of the integration of the database. 
  • This testing is carried out at the early stage of development and hence It is very helpful to reduce errors. 
  • It consists of various techniques such as boundary analysis, equivalent partitioning, and cause-effect graphing. 
  • These techniques are helpful in checking the functionality of the database.
  • The best example is the User login page. If the entered username and password are correct, It will allow the user and redirect to the next page.

b) White Box Testing:

  • White Box Testing is the process of validating the internal structure of the database.
  • Here, the specified details are hidden from the user. 
  • The database triggers, functions, views, queries, and cursors will be checked in this testing. 
  • It validates the database schema, database table, etc., 
  • Here the coding errors in the triggers can be easily found. 
  • Errors in the queries can also be handled in this white box testing and hence internal errors are easily eliminated.

3. Non-Functional Testing

Non-functional testing is the process of performing load testing, stress testing, and checking minimum system requirements are required to meet the requirements. It will also detect risks, and errors and optimize the performance of the database. 

a) Load Testing:

  • Load testing involves testing the performance and scalability of the database. 
  • It determines how the software behaves when it is been used by many users simultaneously. 
  • It focuses on good load management.
  • For example, if the web application is accessed by multiple users at the same time and it does not create any traffic problems then the load testing is successfully completed.

b) Stress Testing:

  • Stress Testing is also known as endurance testing. Stress testing is a testing process that is performed to identify the breakpoint of the system.
  • In this testing, an application is loaded till the stage the system fails. 
  • This point is known as a breakpoint of the database system.
  • It evaluates and analyzes the software after the breakage of system failure. In case of error detection, It will display the error messages.
  • For example, if users enter the wrong login information then it will throw an error message. 

Backend Testing Process

Backend Testing Process

1. Set up the Test Environment: When the coding process is done for the application, set up the test environment by choosing a proper testing tool for back-end testing. It includes choosing the right team to test the entire back-end environment with a proper schedule. Record all the testing processes in the documents or update them in software to keep track of all the processes.

2. Generate the Test Cases: Once the tool and the team are ready for the testing process, generate the test cases as per the business requirements. The automation tool itself will analyze the code and generate all possible test cases for developed code. If the process is manual then the tester will have to write the possible test cases in the testing tool to ensure the correctness of the code. 

3. Execution of Test Cases: Once the test cases are generated, the tester or Quality Analyst needs to execute those test cases in the developed code. If the tool is automated, it will generate and execute the test cases by itself. Otherwise, the tester needs to write and execute those test cases. It will highlight whether the execution of test cases is executed successfully or not. 

4. Analyzing the Test Cases: After the execution of test cases, it highlights the result of all the test cases whether it has been executed successfully or not. If an error occurs in the test cases, it will highlight where the particular error is formed or raised, and in some cases, the automation tool will give hints regarding the issues to solve the error. The tester or Quality Analyst should analyze the code again and fix the issues if an error occurred. 

5. Submission of Test Reports: This is the last stage in the testing process. Here, all the details such as who is responsible for testing, the tool used in the testing process, number of test cases generated, number of test cases executed successfully or not, time is taken to execute each test case, number of times test cases failed, number of times errors occurred. These details are either documented or updated in the software. The report will be submitted to the respective team. 

Backend Testing Validation

The following are some of the factors for backend testing validation:

  • Performance Check: It validates the performance of each individual test and the system behavior.
  • Sequence Testing: Backend testing validates that the tests are distributed according to the priority.
  • Database Server Validations: In this, ensures that the data fed through for the tests is correct or not.
  • Functions Testing: In this, the test validates the consistency in transactions of the database.
  • Key and Indexes: In this, the test ensures that the accurate constraint and the rules of constraints and indexes are followed properly.
  • Data Integrity Testing: It is a technique in which data is verified in the database whether it is accurate and functions as per requirements.
  • Database Tables: It ensures that the created table and the queries for the output are providing the expected result.
  • Database Triggers: Backend Testing validates the correctness of the functionality of triggers.
  • Stored Procedures: Backend testing validates the functions, return statements, calling the other events, etc., are correctly mentioned as per the requirements,
  • Schema: Backend testing validates that the data is organized in a correct way as per the business requirement and confirms the outcome.

Tools For Backend Testing

The following are some of the tools for backend testing:

1. LoadRunner:

  • It is a stress testing tool.
  • It is an automated performance and testing automation tool for analyzing system behavior and the performance of the system while generating the actual load.

2. Empirix-TEST Suite:

  • It is acquired by Oracle from Empirix. It is a load testing tool.
  • It validates the scalability along with the functionality of the application under heavy test.
  • Acquisition with the Empirix -Test suite may be proven effective to deliver the application with improved quality.

3. Stored Procedure Testing Tools – LINQ:

  • It is a powerful tool that allows the user to show the projects.
  • It tracks all the ORM calls and database queries from the ORM. 
  • It enables to see the performance of the data access code and easily determine performance.

4. Unit Testing ToolsSQL Unit, DBFit, NDbUnit:

  • SQL UNIT: SQLUnit is a Unit Testing Framework for Regression and Unit Testing of database stored procedures.
  • DBFit: It is a part of FitNesse and manages stored procedures and custom procedures. Accomplishes database testing either through Java or .NET and runs from the command line.
  • NDbUnit: It performs the database unit test for the system either before or after execution or compiled the other parts of the system.

5. Data Factory Tools:

  • These tools work as data managers and data generators for backend database testing.
  • It is used to validate the queries with a huge set of data.
  • It allows performing both stress and load testing.

6. SQLMap:

  • It is an open-source tool.
  • It is used for performing Penetration Testing to automate the process of detection.
  • Powerful detection of errors will lead to efficient testing and result in the expected behavior of the requirements.


  • This is the software tool and it is written in PHP. 
  • It is developed to handle the databases and we can execute test queries to ensure the correctness of the result as a whole and even for a separate table.

8. Automatic Efficient Test Generator (AETG):

  • It mechanically generates the possible tests from user-defined requirements.
  • It is based on algorithms that use ideas from statistical experimental design theory to reduce the number of tests needed for a specific level of test coverage of the input test space.

9. HammerDB:

  • It is an open-source tool for load testing.
  • It validates the activity replay functionality for the oracle database.
  • It is based on industry standards like TPC-C and TPC-H Benchmarks.

10. SQL Test:

  • SQL Test uses an open-source tSQLt framework, views, stored procedures, and functions.
  • This tool stores database object in a separate schema and if changes occur there is no need for clearing the process.
  • It allows running the unit test cases for the SQL server database.

Advantages of Backend Testing

The following are some of the benefits of backend testing:

  • Errors are easily detectable at the earlier stage.
  • It avoids deadlock creation on the server-side.
  • Web load management is easily achieved.
  • The functionality of the database is maintained properly.
  • It reduces data loss.
  • Enhances the functioning of the system.
  • It ensures the security and protection of the system.
  • While doing the backend testing, the errors in the UI parts can also be detected and replaced.
  • Coverage of all possible test cases.

Disadvantages of Backend Testing

The following are some of the disadvantages of backend testing:

  • Good domain knowledge is required.
  • Providing test cases for testing requires special attention.
  • Investment in Organizational costs is higher.
  • It takes more time to test.
  • If more testing becomes fails then It will lead to a crash on the server-side in some cases.
  • Errors or Unexpected results from one test case scenario will affect the other system results also.

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