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What are the three levels of governance in India?

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  • Last Updated : 03 Jul, 2022

Human society has developed into an organized state after suffering various social, political, and geological upheavals. A commitment involving laws, a set of rules, power, and the adoption of the right mindset is necessary for the society and the nation to operate smoothly. Since William Tyndale and Charles Plummer’s writings, the term “governance” has generally been used to refer to political governance.

Three Levels of Governance in India

Central government, state government, and local government are India’s three levels of government. The local government operates on a village or town level, the state government operates on a state level, and the central government operates on a national level. Governments possess the authority to enact laws, make decisions, and carry them out. People can seek the judiciary if they believe that the laws created by the government are improper.

In a democracy, the people actually hold the power since they elect all levels of government. People have the power to remove governments from office in the subsequent elections if they are dissatisfied with the decisions made by those in power. It is referred to as a representative democracy because the people elect the governments.

Central Government

The Republic of India’s executive branch is known as the Government of India. Although the phrase is used to refer to the executive branch, the National Constitution refers to the government as the federal executive, legislative, and judicial authority. Although the president holds the highest position of formal executive authority and serves as the head of state, the prime minister is actually in charge of the government. The capital of India, New Delhi, is where the government is based.

State Government

The state executive is covered under Article 153-167 in Part 6 of the constitution, hence the constitution calls for a separate federal government with a different organizational structure. The arm of government in charge of passing and upholding state laws is known as the state government. Some contemporary countries, like the United States, Australia, and India, use state governments to handle local issues. The administration of local needs and issues within a state or region is often the responsibility of state governments.

Local Government

Local self-government is the administration of local affairs by local bodies that the local populace has elected. Both rural and urban governments are included in local self-government. The third tier of governance is it. Panchayats, which are local governments in rural areas, and Municipalities, which are local governments in urban areas, are both in use.

  • Panchayats: In India, a system of rural local self-government known as Panchayati Raj Institution (PRI) is used. The 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act, passed in 1992, gave PRI constitutional status in order to promote democracy at the local level and give it responsibility for the nation’s rural development.
  • Municipalities: The creation of urban local governments was done in order to decentralize democracy. Municipal Corporation, Municipality, Notified Area Committee, Town Area Committee, Cantonment Board, Township, Port Trust, and Special Purpose Agency are the eight different types of urban municipal governments in India.

Sample Problems

Question 1: What are different terms used for a national government in India?


The Central Government, Union Government, or Government of India are additional names for the federal government.

Question 2: Which ministry comprises the Department of Personnel and Training?


The Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions comprises the Department of Personnel and Training.

Question 3: Who is considered as the head of the state and who is head of the government?


The President is the head of the state whereas the Prime Minister is the head of the government.

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