# What are the primary functions of trigonometry?

• Last Updated : 10 Mar, 2022

Trigonometry is a discipline of mathematics that studies the relationships between the lengths of the sides and angles of a right-angled triangle. Trigonometric functions, also known as goniometric functions, angle functions, or circular functions, are functions that establish the relationship between an angle to the ratio of two of the sides of a right-angled triangle. The six main trigonometric functions are sine, cosine, tangent, cotangent, secant, and cosecant.

Angles defined by the ratios of trigonometric functions are known as trigonometry angles. Trigonometric angles represent trigonometric functions. The value of the angle can be anywhere between 0-360°.

As given in the above figure in a right-angled triangle:

• Hypotenuse: The side opposite to the right angle is the hypotenuse, It is the longest side in a right-angled triangle and opposite to the 90° angle.
• Base: The side on which angle C lies is known as the base.
• Perpendicular: It is the side opposite to angle C in consideration.

Trigonometric Functions

Trigonometry has 6 basic trigonometric functions, they are sine, cosine, tangent, cosecant, secant, and cotangent. Now let’s look into the trigonometric functions. The six trigonometric functions are as follows,

sine: It is defined as the ratio of perpendicular and hypotenuse and It is represented as sin θ

cosine: It is defined as the ratio of base and hypotenuse and it is represented as cos θ

tangent: It is defined as the ratio of sine and cosine of an angle. Thus the definition of tangent comes out to be the ratio of perpendicular and base and is represented as tan θ

cosecant: It is the reciprocal of sin θ and is represented as cosec θ.

secant: It is the reciprocal of cos θ and is represented as sec θ.

cotangent: It is the reciprocal of tan θ and is represented as cot θ.

According to the above image, Trigonometric Ratios are

Sin θ = Perpendicular / Hypotenuse = AB/AC

Cosine θ = Base / Hypotenuse = BC / AC

Tangent θ = Perpendicular / Base = AB / BC

Cosecant θ = Hypotenuse / Perpendicular = AC/AB

Secant θ = Hypotenuse / Base = AC/BC

Cotangent θ = Base / Perpendicular = BC/AB

Reciprocal Identities

Sin θ = 1/Cosec θ                    OR        Cosec θ = 1/Sin θ

Cos θ = 1/Sec θ                       OR        Sec θ = 1/Cos θ

Cot θ = 1/Tan θ                     OR         Tan θ = 1/Cot θ

Cot θ = Cos θ/Sin θ               OR         Tan θ = Sin θ/Cos θ

Tan θ.Cot θ = 1

Values of Trigonometric Ratios

Trigonometric Identities of Complementary and Supplementary Angles

• Complementary Angles: Pair of angles whose sum is equal to 90°
• Supplementary Angles: Pair of angles whose sum is equal to 180°

Identities of Complementary angles are

sin (90° – θ) = cos θ

cos (90° – θ) = sin θ

tan (90° – θ) = cot θ

cot (90° – θ) = tan θ

sec (90° – θ) = cosec θ

cosec (90° – θ) = sec θ

Identities of supplementary angles

sin (180° – θ) = sin θ

cos (180° – θ) = – cos θ

tan (180° – θ) = – tan θ

cot (180° – θ) = – cot θ

sec (180° – θ) = – sec θ

cosec (180° – θ) = – cosec θ

### What are the primary functions of trigonometry?

Solution:

The primary function of trigonometry are

Trigonometry has 6 basic trigonometric functions, they are sine, cosine, tangent, cosecant, secant, and cotangent. Now let’s look into the trigonometric functions. The six trigonometric functions are as follows,

sine: It is defined as the ratio of perpendicular and hypotenuse and It is represented as sin θ

cosine: It is defined as the ratio of base and hypotenuse and it is represented as cos θ

tangent: It is defined as the ratio of sine and cosine of an angle. Thus the definition of tangent comes out to be the ratio of perpendicular and base and is represented as tan θ

cosecant: It is the reciprocal of sin θ and is represented as cosec θ.

secant: It is the reciprocal of cos θ and is represented as sec θ.

cotangent: It is the reciprocal of tan θ and is represented as cot θ.

Sin θ = Perpendicular / Hypotenuse = AB/AC

Cosine θ = Base / Hypotenuse = BC / AC

Tangent θ = Perpendicular / Base = AB / BC

Cosecant θ = Hypotenuse / Perpendicular = AC/AB

Secant θ = Hypotenuse / Base = AC/BC

Cotangent θ = Base / Perpendicular = BC/AB

### Sample Questions

Question 1: If Sin θ = 4/5 then find all the trigonometric values?

Solution:

Here we have

sin θ = 4/5

therefore Sin θ = Perpendicular / Hypotenuse = AB/AC

so we have perpendicular (p)= 4 and hypotenuse(h) = 5

So as per the pythagoras theorem

Lets find out the value of base (b)

h2 = b2+p2

52 = b2 + 42

25 = b2 + 16

25 -16 = b2

or b2  = 9

b = 3

So now

As per the trigonometric functions

We have

Sin θ = Perpendicular/Hypotenuse = AB/AC = 4/5

Cosine θ = Base/Hypotenuse = BC/AC = 3/5

Tangent θ = Perpendicular/Base = AB/BC = 4/3

Cosecant θ = Hypotenuse/Perpendicular = AC/AB = 5/4

Secant θ = Hypotenuse/Base = AC/BC = 5/3

Cotangent θ = Base/Perpendicular = BC/AB = 3/4

Question 2: In the right angled triangle at B, if sin C =3/5, find cos C and tan C?

Solution:

Here we have sin C = 3/5

Therefore sin C = 3/5 and  Sin θ = Perpendicular / Hypotenuse = AB/AC

AB (p)= 3 , AC (h) = 5

Now for cos C = Cosine θ = Base / Hypotenuse = BC / AC

here AC = 5 and base BC = ?

for this we will use pythagoras theorem

AC2 = AB2 + BC2

52 = 32 + BC2

25 = 9 + BC2

BC2= 25-9

BC2 = 16

BC = 4

Therefore

cos C = Cosine θ = Base/Hypotenuse = BC/AC = 4/5 and

tan C = Tangent θ = Perpendicular/Base = AB/BC = 3/4

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