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What are the Four Major Domains of the Earth?

Last Updated : 08 Sep, 2023
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The major domains of the earth form a very basic topic in Geography. The four domains of the earth include the solid part of the Lithosphere, the gaseous part of the Atmosphere, the liquid portion of the hydrosphere, and the biosphere portion. All these different portions are not independent but are interdependent on one another.

Major domains of Earth

Major Domains of Earth

Major Domains of Earth

Earth is the planet in our nearby planet group that has the capacity to give life. The outer layer of the earth is a zone where three fundamental parts of the climate meet, cross-over as well as collaborate. There are four significant spaces of the Earth as follows-lithosphere, climate, hydrosphere, and biosphere. The climate is additionally partitioned into four layers in view of the piece, temperature, and different properties that are the lower atmosphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere.

Significant spaces on the earth are a fundamental idea in Geography. The world’s surface is a perplexing zone wherein the three significant parts of the climate meet, cross over, and cooperate. Strong (Lithosphere), vaporous (Atmosphere), fluid (Hydrosphere) and biosphere parts of the earth are not secluded, however, they cross over with one another.

Four Domains of the Earth

The four major domains of the earth include the following:


The Lithosphere is known as the strong part of the earth on which we live. It includes the meager layers of soil that contain supplement components that support organic entities and the stones of the world outside.

It is the hard layer present on the top layer or on the outside of the earth. This is the piece of the earth where individuals reside. The lithosphere comprises various kinds of minerals, shakes, and soils. The entire lithosphere is a lopsided surface containing different landforms like mountains, levels, fields, valleys, and so on. Earth’s surface can be partitioned into two principal parts – Continents and tremendous water bodies. The most noteworthy mountain top on the planet is Mount Everest at a level of 8,848 m above ocean level. The most profound area on the earth is the Mariana Channel in the Pacific Ocean which is around 11,034 meters down. There are seven significant landmasses and these are isolated by enormous water bodies.

  1. Asia: Asia is the biggest mainland covering 33% of the all-out land region of the earth. The landmass lies in the Eastern Hemisphere. The Tropic of Cancer goes through Asia. The Ural Mountains on the west isolate from Europe.
  2. Europe: Europe is a lot more modest than Asia deceiving the west of Asia. The Arctic Circle goes through it. Its three sides are limited by water bodies.
  3. Africa: Africa is the second-biggest landmass after Asia. An enormous piece of Africa lies in the Northern Hemisphere. Africa is the main landmass through which the Tropic of Cancer, the Equator, and the Tropic of Capricorn pass.
  4. North America: North America is the third biggest mainland on the planet. The mainland lies totally in the Northern and Western Hemispheres. The Isthmus of Panama is a limited strip interface between North America and South America. This mainland is encircled by three seas and they are the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, and the Arctic Ocean.
  5. South America: South America lies generally in the Southern Hemisphere. It is encircled by two seas; the Pacific Ocean on the west and the Atlantic Ocean on the east and north.
  6. Australia: Australia is the littlest mainland that lies totally in the Southern Hemisphere. It is encircled on all sides by the seas and oceans. It is called an island landmass.
  7. Antarctica: Antarctica is a colossal mainland and lies totally in the Southern Hemisphere. The South Pole lies in the South Polar Region nearly at the focal point of this mainland and is for all time covered with thick ice sheets.


The Atmosphere is the vaporous layer that encompasses the earth, where oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and different gases are found. This slim cover of air is a fundamental part of the planet. It shields us from the unsafe impacts of the sun’s beams and gives us the air we relax. The air reaches up to a level of around 1,600 kilometers and is partitioned into five layers in light of its temperature, creation, and different properties. These layers are known as the lower atmosphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere, the thermosphere, and the exosphere.

The earth is encircled by a layer of gas called the environment. The vaporous layers that encompass the earth — where oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and different gases are found and connected. The progressions in the environment produce changes in the climate and environment. The climate reaches up to a level of around 1,600 kilometers. The gravitational power of the earth holds the environment around it. The environment is separated into five layers in view of the organization, temperature, and different properties and they are:

  • Lower atmosphere
  • Stratosphere
  • Mesosphere
  • Thermosphere
  • Exosphere

The vast majority of perfect and dry air in the environment is made primarily out of nitrogen and oxygen. Nitrogen is 78%, oxygen 21%, and different gases like carbon dioxide, argon, and others involve 1% by volume. The thickness of the climate: Maximum at the ocean level and diminishes quickly as we go up.


The Hydrosphere is an exceptionally large region of the world’s surface that is covered by water. It contains water in the entirety of its structures, or at least, water fume, ice, and water. Concerning running water in streams and seas and in underground water, lakes, ice in ice sheets, and the water fume in the climate, all contain the hydrosphere. The earth is known as the blue planet. Over 97% of the Earth’s water is found in the seas and consequently is excessively pungent for human use. An enormous extent of the remainder of the water is as glacial masses and ice sheets or under the ground and a tiny rate is accessible as freshwater for human use. Consequently, we face a deficiency of water notwithstanding being a ‘blue planet’.

Around 70% of Earth’s piece is covered with water which is the reason it is known as the blue planet. A wide range of water bodies goes under the hydrosphere. It incorporates running water like streams, seas, lakes, icy masses which can be in ice structures, underground waters, and water fume content in the environment. The vast majority of the water found on the earth or say in the seas are pungent and can’t be utilized by people. Additionally, glacial masses and ice sheets likewise contain water yet in another structure. A tiny level of water is accessible which can be utilized by individuals. Thus, there is a shortage of water.


The Biosphere is the restricted zone that contains all types of life where we track down the land, water, and air together. This is the zone wherein life is remarkable on this planet. The organic entities in the biosphere might be separated into the plant realm and the animals of the world collectively. It’s a zone where all three, land, air, and water meet and connect. Life exists in this zone. Many sorts of creatures are found on the earth and they are subject to one another and on the biosphere for their endurance.

The biosphere contains creatures that can be partitioned into the plant realm and a collective of animals. The lithosphere, the hydrosphere, and the climate collaborate with one another in various ways. For instance, Humans clean land for farming purposes, Animals rely upon one another and on the plants for their food, and plants rely upon gases present in the air, soil, and daylight for food. In this way, the four primary spaces of the earth are Lithosphere, environment, hydrosphere, and biosphere.

Related Links

  1. Composition of earth’s atmosphere
  2. Biosphere
  3. Conservation of Water Resources

Frequently Asked Questions

Q 1. What are the major domains of the earth?


The major domains of the earth include atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere.

Q 2. What is the importance of the four domains of the earth?


The importance of the four domains of earth include:

  1. Lithosphere is the domain that provides land which includes, forests, agriculture, and land for agriculture as well as human settlement.
  2. Hydrosphere provides us with all the water resources.
  3. The atmosphere is the gaseous portion and it provides us with the oxygen to breathe and sustain ourselves.
  4. Biosphere is the culmination and the point where all the other three spheres meet.


Q 3. What is the most important major domain of the earth?


The most important major domain of earth is the continents as they inhabit the largest number of lifeforms.

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