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What are Monovalent Ions?

  • Last Updated : 26 Oct, 2021

Ions are a type of ion that is studied in science. Chemistry is made up of atoms and electrons that have gained or lost weight due to the removal or addition of one or more valence electrons, which results in either a positive or a negative charge. Ions with a negative charge are known as anions, whereas those with a positive charge are known as cations. Because they both have charged with opposite characteristics, they are attracted to one another, producing an ionic connection.

If an atom or atoms have an equal amount of electrons (negative charge) and protons (positive charge), they are generally neutral. They will, however, be charged if they are not balanced. These charged species are referred to as ions.

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Formation of Ions 

Every atom is uncharged in its ground state. It has the same number of protons and electrons as its atomic number. Electrons, on the other hand, are highly labile, and an atom will frequently gain or lose them depending on its electronegativity. The energetically optimum condition of having a complete valence (outermost) shell of electrons is the driving factor for such electron gain or loss. The resultant charged atom has the electron configuration of noble gas in this state.



The addition of one electron upsets the proton-electron equilibrium, leaving the atom negatively charged. The removal of an electron, on the other hand, will leave the atom positively charged. These charged atoms are referred to as ions.

A negative-charged ion is known as an anion. Anions are produced when electrons from other atoms are gained, giving them a negative charge. Simply said, it signifies that the atom contains more electrons than protons. Anions are divided into four categories. Below is a list of them:

  1. Monovalent Anions
  2. Divalent Anions
  3. Trivalent Anions
  4. Tetravalent Anions

In the same way, the cation is a positive-charged ion. Cations are generated when electrons are lost, resulting in a positive charge. It denotes that the atom has a greater number of protons than electrons. There are four types of cations. Below is a list of them:

  1. Monovalent Cations
  2. Divalent Cations
  3. Trivalent Cations
  4. Tetravalent Cations

What are Monovalent Anions?

Monovalent anions are those with a valency of one. Monovalent anions, in other words, are negative ions with a valency of -1. 

The following are some of the most important monovalent anions or monovalent negative ions: Hydride ion (H), Fluoride ion (F), Chloride ion (Cl), Bromide ion (Br), etc.

What are Monovalent Cations?

Cations are ions with a positive charge. Cations include Na+, Al+3, Ce+3 etc. When an atom loses an electron, it obtains a positive charge because its nucleus has fewer electrons than protons. The positively charged species is then referred to as a cation.

Positively charged atoms, radicals, or groups of atoms with a valence of +1 travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis, known as monovalent cations. An example is Na+.

A list of some monovalent cations is,



Element

Atomic Number

Symbol

Monovalent Ion

Hydrogen

1

H

H+

Lithium

3

Li

Li+

Sodium

11

Na

Na+

Potassium

19

K

K+



Copper

29

Cu

Cu+

Silver

47

Ag

Ag+

Caesium

55

Cs

Cs+

Gold

79

Au

Au+

Sample Questions

Question 1: Write a brief note on the discovery of ions.

Answer:

Based on a suggestion by English polymath and scientist William Whewell, English physicist and chemist Michael Faraday introduced the name ion in 1834. Michael Faraday coined this expression to describe creatures that move from one electrode to the next over an aqueous medium. The terms anion and cation were also coined by Faraday and Whewell. According to Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius, when solid crystalline salts are dissolved, they dissociate into paired charged particles. For this work, he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1903.

Question 2: What are ions?



Answer:

Electrically charged particles are known as ions. An ion is a positive electrically charged atom or molecule. An atom has no charge and is neutral in nature because the amount of electrons and protons in it is equal. The number of protons in ions is the same, but the number of electrons is not. They have a positive or negative charge as a result. Na+, O-2, NH4+, and other ions are examples of ions.

Question 3: What are polyatomic and monoatomic ions?

Answer:

Polyatomic ions are made up of covalently bonded elements or atoms that have either a positive or negative charge. CN, OH, NO3, CO3-2, and other polyatomic ions are examples. 

Monoatomic ions are ions with only one element and a single charge, either positive or negative. Na+, O-2, Al+3  and other monoatomic ions are examples.

Question 4: What are anions?

Answer:

Anions are ions with a negative charge. When an atom gains an electron, it obtains a negative charge because its nucleus has more electrons than protons. The negatively charged species is then referred to as an anion.

Question 5: What are monovalent anions?

Answer:

Monovalent anions are those with a valency of one. Monovalent anions, in other words, are negative ions with a valency of -1. 




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