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What are Divalent Ions?

  • Last Updated : 09 Dec, 2021

The study and research on the periodic table have come with various conclusions like the discovery of elements, atomic model, the structure of the atom, subatomic particles, etc. By the time there have been notable discoveries by scientists and researchers which made the study much relevant. The theories proposed till now explains the physical and chemical properties of different elements found.

Ions are atoms or groups of atoms that carry electronegative or electropositive charges. The formation of ions takes place due to the losing or sharing of electrons. it simply means the number of protons present in an atom is not equal to the number of electrons.

Both cations and anions are ions. The net electrical charge of the ion is the difference between a cation and an anion

Ions are atoms or molecules with a net positive or negative charge due to the gain or loss of one or more valence electrons. If there are more protons than electrons in a chemical species, it has a net positive charge. The species has a negative charge if there are more electrons than protons. The number of neutrons determines an element’s isotope but has no bearing on its electrical charge.

Anions 

An anion is a negatively charged ionic species. An atom that has gained electrons is known as this. The anode is drawn to anions, while the cathode is attracted to cations.

Because certain anions induce corrosion, the idea of an anion is essential in the corrosion industry. It is widely established that some electrolytes, particularly chlorides and sulphates, are corrosive when metals, such as mild steel, corrode in an aqueous solution. The anions are categorised into four types.

Anions

Valency (-)

Monovalent anions

    1

Divalent anions

    2

Trivalent anions

    3

Tetravalent anions

    4

Cations

When some elements form ions, they lose one or more electrons. Because they are positively charged and migrate toward the negative electrode (cathode) in an electrical field, these ions are called “cations.” 

We can see from the periodic table below that group 1 element all have one s electron in the outer orbit, whereas group 2 elements have two s electrons in the outer orbit. These electrons are weakly linked to the atom and can be easily withdrawn, leaving the atom with more protons than electrons, resulting in a positive-charged ion. Many transition elements can generate cations as a result of electron loss. The cations are categorised into four types

CationsValency (+)
Monovalent cations      1
Divalent cations       2
Trivalent cations       3
Tetravalent cations       4

What are Divalent Anions (2-)?

Divalent anions are the negatively charged ions having their valency (2-). They are the electronegative radicals also known as bivalent anions. 

Divalent anions are formed by gaining two valence electrons and attaining a negative charge. This means the number of electrons is higher than protons in divalent anions. It is denoted by superscript 2- on the symbol of an atom or group of atoms. Some of the examples of divalent anions are oxide (O2-), Carbonate(CO32-), etc.

List of diavalent anions:

Name 

Formula

Carbonate

CO32-

Chromate

CrO42-

Dichromate

Cr2O72-

Manganate

MnO42-

Tetrathionate

S4O62-

Sulphide

S2-

Sulphite

SO32-

Sulphate

SO42-

Oxide

O2-

Zincate

ZnO22-

Thiosulphate

S2O32-

What are Divalent Cations (2+)?

Divalent Cations are the positively charged ions having their valency (2+). They are also known as bivalent cations. They are the basic radicals formed by the removal of hydroxide ions from the base.

Divalent cations lose two valence electrons and attain a positive charge. The cation is denoted by superscript 2+ on the symbol of atom or group of atoms. Some of the examples of divalent cations are Barium(Ba2+), Calcium(Ca2+), Magnesium(Mg2+), etc.

List of diavalent Cations:

Name 

Formula

Barium

Ba2+

Copper[II]

Cu2+

Calcium

Ca2+

Magnesium

Mg2+

Manganese[II]

Mn2+

Zinc

Zn2+

Iron[II]

Fe2+

Nickel

Ni2+

Cobalt

Co2+

Tin[II]

Sn2+

Cadmium

Cd2+

Lead[II]

Pb2+

Sample Questions

Question 1: Anions are called acidic radicals, Why?

Answer:

Anions are called acidic radicals because  as they are the  ions formed after the removal of hydrogen ion (H+) from an acid. 

Question 2: How are cations formed?

Answer:

Cations are formed by the removal of hydroxide ion (OH-).

Question 3: Sulphate is kept in the group of divalent anion, why?

Answer:

Sulphate is a diavalent anion because it has valency two and carries negative charge by gaining electrons from others.

Question 4: What are the main electrolytes?

Answer:

Sodium, Chloride, potassium, calcium and magnesium are the five main electrolytes that releases ions when dissolved in water.

Question 5: Give some examples of ionization.

Answer: 

Fluorescent lights, plasma globes, plasma cutters etc. are the best example of ionization.

Question 6: Calcium is kept in the group of divalent cations, why?

Answer:

Calcium is a divalent cation because it has valency two and carries a positive charge by gaining electrons from others.

Question 7: Can atoms of the same element for two or more types of ions?

Answer:

Yes, the elements having atoms with variable valency can form more types of ions. For example copper, iron, etc.


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