# Vigenère Cipher

• Difficulty Level : Medium
• Last Updated : 05 Jul, 2022

Vigenere Cipher is a method of encrypting alphabetic text. It uses a simple form of polyalphabetic substitution. A polyalphabetic cipher is any cipher based on substitution, using multiple substitution alphabets. The encryption of the original text is done using the Vigenère square or Vigenère table.

• The table consists of the alphabets written out 26 times in different rows, each alphabet shifted cyclically to the left compared to the previous alphabet, corresponding to the 26 possible Caesar Ciphers.
• At different points in the encryption process, the cipher uses a different alphabet from one of the rows.
• The alphabet used at each point depends on a repeating keyword.

Example:

```Input : Plaintext :   GEEKSFORGEEKS
Keyword :  AYUSH
Output : Ciphertext :  GCYCZFMLYLEIM
For generating key, the given keyword is repeated
in a circular manner until it matches the length of
the plain text.
The keyword "AYUSH" generates the key "AYUSHAYUSHAYU"
The plain text is then encrypted using the process
explained below.```

Encryption:

The first letter of the plaintext, G is paired with A, the first letter of the key. So use row G and column A of the Vigenère square, namely G. Similarly, for the second letter of the plaintext, the second letter of the key is used, the letter at row E, and column Y is C. The rest of the plaintext is enciphered in a similar fashion.

Table to encrypt – Geeks

Decryption:
Decryption is performed by going to the row in the table corresponding to the key, finding the position of the ciphertext letter in this row, and then using the column’s label as the plaintext. For example, in row A (from AYUSH), the ciphertext G appears in column G, which is the first plaintext letter. Next, we go to row Y (from AYUSH), locate the ciphertext C which is found in column E, thus E is the second plaintext letter.

A more easy implementation could be to visualize Vigenère algebraically by converting [A-Z] into numbers [0–25].

```Encryption
The plaintext(P) and key(K) are added modulo 26.
Ei = (Pi + Ki) mod 26

Decryption
Di = (Ei - Ki + 26) mod 26```

Note: Di denotes the offset of the i-th character of the plaintext. Like offset of A is 0 and of B is 1 and so on.

Below is the implementation of the idea.

## C++

 `// C++ code to implement Vigenere Cipher``#include``using` `namespace` `std;` `// This function generates the key in``// a cyclic manner until it's length isi'nt``// equal to the length of original text``string generateKey(string str, string key)``{``    ``int` `x = str.size();` `    ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; ; i++)``    ``{``        ``if` `(x == i)``            ``i = 0;``        ``if` `(key.size() == str.size())``            ``break``;``        ``key.push_back(key[i]);``    ``}``    ``return` `key;``}` `// This function returns the encrypted text``// generated with the help of the key``string cipherText(string str, string key)``{``    ``string cipher_text;` `    ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i < str.size(); i++)``    ``{``        ``// converting in range 0-25``        ``char` `x = (str[i] + key[i]) %26;` `        ``// convert into alphabets(ASCII)``        ``x += ``'A'``;` `        ``cipher_text.push_back(x);``    ``}``    ``return` `cipher_text;``}` `// This function decrypts the encrypted text``// and returns the original text``string originalText(string cipher_text, string key)``{``    ``string orig_text;` `    ``for` `(``int` `i = 0 ; i < cipher_text.size(); i++)``    ``{``        ``// converting in range 0-25``        ``char` `x = (cipher_text[i] - key[i] + 26) %26;` `        ``// convert into alphabets(ASCII)``        ``x += ``'A'``;``        ``orig_text.push_back(x);``    ``}``    ``return` `orig_text;``}` `// Driver program to test the above function``int` `main()``{``    ``string str = ``"GEEKSFORGEEKS"``;``    ``string keyword = ``"AYUSH"``;` `    ``string key = generateKey(str, keyword);``    ``string cipher_text = cipherText(str, key);` `    ``cout << ``"Ciphertext : "``         ``<< cipher_text << ``"\n"``;` `    ``cout << ``"Original/Decrypted Text : "``         ``<< originalText(cipher_text, key);``    ``return` `0;``}`

## Java

 `// Java code to implement Vigenere Cipher` `class` `GFG``{` `// This function generates the key in``// a cyclic manner until it's length isi'nt``// equal to the length of original text``static` `String generateKey(String str, String key)``{``    ``int` `x = str.length();` `    ``for` `(``int` `i = ``0``; ; i++)``    ``{``        ``if` `(x == i)``            ``i = ``0``;``        ``if` `(key.length() == str.length())``            ``break``;``        ``key+=(key.charAt(i));``    ``}``    ``return` `key;``}` `// This function returns the encrypted text``// generated with the help of the key``static` `String cipherText(String str, String key)``{``    ``String cipher_text=``""``;` `    ``for` `(``int` `i = ``0``; i < str.length(); i++)``    ``{``        ``// converting in range 0-25``        ``int` `x = (str.charAt(i) + key.charAt(i)) %``26``;` `        ``// convert into alphabets(ASCII)``        ``x += ``'A'``;` `        ``cipher_text+=(``char``)(x);``    ``}``    ``return` `cipher_text;``}` `// This function decrypts the encrypted text``// and returns the original text``static` `String originalText(String cipher_text, String key)``{``    ``String orig_text=``""``;` `    ``for` `(``int` `i = ``0` `; i < cipher_text.length() &&``                            ``i < key.length(); i++)``    ``{``        ``// converting in range 0-25``        ``int` `x = (cipher_text.charAt(i) -``                    ``key.charAt(i) + ``26``) %``26``;` `        ``// convert into alphabets(ASCII)``        ``x += ``'A'``;``        ``orig_text+=(``char``)(x);``    ``}``    ``return` `orig_text;``}` `// This function will convert the lower case character to Upper case``static` `String LowerToUpper(String s)``{``    ``StringBuffer str =``new` `StringBuffer(s);``    ``for``(``int` `i = ``0``; i < s.length(); i++)``    ``{``        ``if``(Character.isLowerCase(s.charAt(i)))``        ``{``            ``str.setCharAt(i, Character.toUpperCase(s.charAt(i)));``        ``}``    ``}``    ``s = str.toString();``    ``return` `s;``}` `// Driver code``public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args)``{``    ``String Str = ``"GEEKSFORGEEKS"``;``    ``String Keyword = ``"AYUSH"``;``      ` `      ``String str = LowerToUpper(Str);``      ``String keyword = LowerToUpper(Keyword);` `    ``String key = generateKey(str, keyword);``    ``String cipher_text = cipherText(str, key);` `    ``System.out.println(``"Ciphertext : "``        ``+ cipher_text + ``"\n"``);` `    ``System.out.println(``"Original/Decrypted Text : "``        ``+ originalText(cipher_text, key));``    ``}``}` `// This code has been contributed by 29AjayKumar`

## Python3

 `# Python code to implement``# Vigenere Cipher` `# This function generates the``# key in a cyclic manner until``# it's length isn't equal to``# the length of original text``def` `generateKey(string, key):``    ``key ``=` `list``(key)``    ``if` `len``(string) ``=``=` `len``(key):``        ``return``(key)``    ``else``:``        ``for` `i ``in` `range``(``len``(string) ``-``                       ``len``(key)):``            ``key.append(key[i ``%` `len``(key)])``    ``return``("" . join(key))``    ` `# This function returns the``# encrypted text generated``# with the help of the key``def` `cipherText(string, key):``    ``cipher_text ``=` `[]``    ``for` `i ``in` `range``(``len``(string)):``        ``x ``=` `(``ord``(string[i]) ``+``             ``ord``(key[i])) ``%` `26``        ``x ``+``=` `ord``(``'A'``)``        ``cipher_text.append(``chr``(x))``    ``return``("" . join(cipher_text))``    ` `# This function decrypts the``# encrypted text and returns``# the original text``def` `originalText(cipher_text, key):``    ``orig_text ``=` `[]``    ``for` `i ``in` `range``(``len``(cipher_text)):``        ``x ``=` `(``ord``(cipher_text[i]) ``-``             ``ord``(key[i]) ``+` `26``) ``%` `26``        ``x ``+``=` `ord``(``'A'``)``        ``orig_text.append(``chr``(x))``    ``return``("" . join(orig_text))``    ` `# Driver code``if` `__name__ ``=``=` `"__main__"``:``    ``string ``=` `"GEEKSFORGEEKS"``    ``keyword ``=` `"AYUSH"``    ``key ``=` `generateKey(string, keyword)``    ``cipher_text ``=` `cipherText(string,key)``    ``print``(``"Ciphertext :"``, cipher_text)``    ``print``(``"Original/Decrypted Text :"``,``           ``originalText(cipher_text, key))` `# This code is contributed``# by Pratik Somwanshi`

## C#

 `// C# code to implement Vigenere Cipher``using` `System;``    ` `class` `GFG``{` `// This function generates the key in``// a cyclic manner until it's length isi'nt``// equal to the length of original text``static` `String generateKey(String str, String key)``{``    ``int` `x = str.Length;` `    ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; ; i++)``    ``{``        ``if` `(x == i)``            ``i = 0;``        ``if` `(key.Length == str.Length)``            ``break``;``        ``key+=(key[i]);``    ``}``    ``return` `key;``}` `// This function returns the encrypted text``// generated with the help of the key``static` `String cipherText(String str, String key)``{``    ``String cipher_text=``""``;` `    ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i < str.Length; i++)``    ``{``        ``// converting in range 0-25``        ``int` `x = (str[i] + key[i]) %26;` `        ``// convert into alphabets(ASCII)``        ``x += ``'A'``;` `        ``cipher_text+=(``char``)(x);``    ``}``    ``return` `cipher_text;``}` `// This function decrypts the encrypted text``// and returns the original text``static` `String originalText(String cipher_text, String key)``{``    ``String orig_text=``""``;` `    ``for` `(``int` `i = 0 ; i < cipher_text.Length &&``                            ``i < key.Length; i++)``    ``{``        ``// converting in range 0-25``        ``int` `x = (cipher_text[i] -``                    ``key[i] + 26) %26;` `        ``// convert into alphabets(ASCII)``        ``x += ``'A'``;``        ``orig_text+=(``char``)(x);``    ``}``    ``return` `orig_text;``}` `// Driver code``public` `static` `void` `Main(String[] args)``{``    ``String str = ``"GEEKSFORGEEKS"``;``    ``String keyword = ``"AYUSH"``;` `    ``String key = generateKey(str, keyword);``    ``String cipher_text = cipherText(str, key);` `    ``Console.WriteLine(``"Ciphertext : "``        ``+ cipher_text + ``"\n"``);` `    ``Console.WriteLine(``"Original/Decrypted Text : "``        ``+ originalText(cipher_text, key));``    ``}``}` `/* This code contributed by PrinciRaj1992 */`

## Javascript

 ``

Output

```Ciphertext : GCYCZFMLYLEIM
Original/Decrypted Text : GEEKSFORGEEKS```

This article is contributed by Ayush Khanduri. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using write.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to review-team@geeksforgeeks.org. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.

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