Typhoid also known as typhoid fever, disease caused by the bacterial infection of Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhi). It normally spread via contaminated food and water. When the food or water is already contaminated with the bacteria, intake of such contaminated food infects the healthier person too. After the invasion, the bacteria start to multiply and spread into the blood. Almost 11-20 million people get infected by these bacteria and a large no. of people die every year. Most of the cases are reported in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa.
What is Typhoid Fever?
Typhoid is caused when the person is contaminated with S.typhi. It inflated the small intestine which leads to high fever, abdominal pain, and discomfort. Typhi grow in the intestine of humans, Peyer’s patches, spleen, liver, gall bladder, bone marrow, and blood. With this bacterial infection till date, only hams get infected with this virus, and no known case of animal observe till today. Diagnosis of typhoid is done by culturing and identifying Typhi from the patient blood sample.
Symptoms of Typhoid
Normally the symptoms developed gradually, and exposure to bacteria after 2–3 weeks.
- Continuous high fever
- Headache, nausea
- Abdominal Pain
- Body ache
- Either constipation or diarrhea
Such symptoms observe if a person doesn’t get the treatment:
- The delirious condition developed.
- Life-threatening conditions developed at this stage.
Causes of Typhoid
Typhoid is basically caused by the bacteria known as S. typhi. Typhoid is transmitted through contaminated food and water, which is contaminated by the fecal matter which is infected by S. typhi. Washing vegetables and fruits with contaminated water also transmits the disease to a human. Even if the person is recovered from the infection, still there are chances that, a person carrying the bacteria in herself.
Samples of blood, stool, and bone marrow are taken from the infected person and run the Widal test.
Widal test is performed to recognize specific antibodies in the serum of infected people via using antigen-antibody interaction. When bacteria enter the human body, in response, the immune system starts working. When any person is infected with the S. typhi then it’s very obvious that’s blood contained antibodies against the bacteria typhi. So, the specific antigen interacts with the antibody and starts clumping. If clumping occurred i.e., +ve, and if no clumping i.e., test is -ve.
Prevention of Typhoid
Countries having more polluted water have a high chance of having more no. of typhoid cases.
- Drinking clean water
- Maintaining hygiene is most important to prevent typhoid.
- More conscious during the food preparation.
- Adding chlorine to water decreases the transmission of typhoid fever.
Treatment of Typhoid
Typhoid can be treated with antibiotics. In the market, so many antibiotics are present. Recovery from typhoid is very fast with antibiotics.
- Taking all the medicine prescribed by a doctor for as long as the doctor suggested doing.
- Maintain proper hygiene, washing hands properly.
- Suggested not touch any eatable item by the infected person
- Test even after the treatment to confirm that, still, they’re not carrying the bacteria.
- Oral rehydration therapy-Provide electrolytes to the person and is helpful in diarrheal conditions.
Please Note: These measures and Symptoms may vary and are just to provide educational information about the disease and are not standard practices. We advise you to consult a Health Care Professional, before trying anything at home.
FAQs on Typhoid
Question 1: What is typhoid?
Typhoid is a bacterial infectious disease caused by S. typhi. Due to this, the person suffers from high fever, and body aches.
Question 2: Is typhoid Contagious?
Yes, it is contagious. Infected persons transmit the bacteria very easily in their fecal matter and are less common via their urine.
Question 3: How typhoid is caused?
The bacteria (S. typhi) is spread by the intake of contaminated food and water.
Question 4: What are the symptoms of typhoid in adults?
Symptoms of typhoid are:
- Body ache
- Vomiting, nausea
- Diarrhea or constipation
- Loss of appetite
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