Types of Reasoning in Artificial Intelligence
In today’s modern world with the advancement of technology we can process the thoughts of humans, the machines are been designed which can think like humans and mimic their actions, thus the overall procedure of design of the machine which can act like humans is called Artificial Intelligence. Some of the applications of artificial Intelligence is expert systems, Natural language processing, Speech Recognition, Computer Vision.
Reasoning plays a great role in the process of artificial Intelligence. Thus Reasoning can be defined as the logical process of drawing conclusions, making predictions or constructing approaches towards a particular thought with the help of existing knowledge. In artificial intelligence, reasoning is very important because to understand the human brain, how the brain thinks, how it draws conclusions towards particular things for all these sorts of works we need the help of reasoning.
Methods of Reasoning:
The reasoning is classified into the following types:
- Deductive Reasoning: Deductive Reasoning is the strategic approach that uses available facts, information or knowledge to draw valid conclusions. It basically beliefs in the facts and ideas before drawing any result. Deductive reasoning uses a top-down approach. In deductive reasoning, the arguments can be valid or invalid based on the value of the premises. If the value of the premises is true, then the conclusion is also true. Deductive reasoning helps in scanning the generalized statement into a valid conclusion. Some of the examples are
- People who are aged 20 or above are active users of the internet.
- Out of the total number of students present in the class, the ratio of boys is more than the girls.
- Inductive Reasoning: Inductive reasoning is completely different from the deductive reasoning approach because Inductive reasoning is associated with the hypothesis-generating approach rather than drawing any particular conclusion to the facts at the beginning of the process. Inductive reasoning help in making generalization from specific facts and knowledge. Inductive reasoning is the bottom-up process. In inductive Reasoning even if the premises are true there is no chance that the conclusion will also be true because it depends upon the inductive argument which can be either strong or weak. Some of the examples are:
- All the students present in the classroom are from London.
- Always the hottest temperature is recorded in Death Valley.
- Common Sense Reasoning: Common sense reasoning is the most occurred type of reasoning in daily life events. It is the type of reasoning which comes from experiences. When a human face a different situation in life it gain some knowledge.So whenever in the next point of time it faces a similar type of situation then it uses its previous experiences to draw a conclusion to do situation. Some of the examples are:
- when a bike crosses the traffic signal when it is red then it learns from its mistakes and next time the bike is aware of the signal and actions.
- While overtaking someone on the road what all ideas should be kept in mind.
- Monotonic Reasoning: It is the type of reasoning which follows a different approach towards the thinking process it uses facts, information and knowledge to draw a conclusion about the problem but the major point is its conclusion remain fixed permanently once it is decided because even if we add new information or facts to the existing one the conclusion remains the same it doesn’t change. Monotonic reasoning is used mainly in conventional reasoning systems and logic-based systems. Some Examples of monotonic are:
- The Sahara desert of the world is one of the most spectacular deserts.
- One of the longest rivers in the world is the Nile River.
- Abductive Reasoning: Abductive Reasoning is a type of reasoning which acts differently from all the above reasoning strategies. It begins with an incomplete set of facts, information and knowledge and then proceeds to find the most deserving explanation and conclusion. It draws conclusions based on what facts you know at present rather than collecting some outdated facts and information. It mostly plays a great role in the daily life decision-making process. Some of the examples are:
- Docter drawing conclusions regarding your health based on test reports.
- A bowl of soup is kept and vapour evaporating from it which draws the conclusion that the bowl is hot in nature.