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Types of MANET in Computer Network

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  • Difficulty Level : Basic
  • Last Updated : 01 Feb, 2023
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Prerequisite – MANET: Mobile Ad hoc Network 
MANET stands for Mobile ad hoc Network also called as wireless ad hoc network or ad hoc wireless network. They consist of a set of mobile nodes connected wirelessly in a self-configured, self-healing network without having a fixed infrastructure. MANET nodes are free to move randomly as the network topology changes frequently. 

Types of MANET – 
 

         1.  Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANETs)  
                                      Enable effective communication with another vehicle or with the roadside equipments. Intelligent vehicular ad hoc networks(InVANETs) deals with another vehicle or with roadside equipments. VANETs use wireless communication technologies, such as WiFi or cellular, to enable vehicles to communicate with each other and with infrastructure devices, such as traffic lights or road-side units.

Uses:  VANETs can be used to support a wide range of applications, such as:

  • Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS): VANETs can be used to improve traffic flow and reduce congestion by providing real-time traffic information and routing advice to drivers.
  • Road Safety: VANETs can be used to improve road safety by providing information about the location of other vehicles, road conditions, and potential hazards. 
  • Entertainment and infotainment: providing in-vehicle entertainment and internet access to the passengers
  • Emergency Services: VANETs can be used to support emergency services by providing real-time information about accidents or other incidents on the road.
  • Commercial Services: VANETs can be used for commercial services such as providing location-based advertisement and other location-based service to the driver or passengers.
    VANETs are considered as one of the most critical application of the Internet of Things (IoT) technology and the 5G technology.
     

         2.  Smart Phone Ad hoc Network (SPANC) – 
                                      To create peer-to-peer networks without relying on cellular carrier networks, wireless access points, or traditional network infrastructure. Here peers can join or leave the network without destroying it. ad-hoc network that utilizes smartphones as the primary nodes for communication. In SPANC, smartphones can act as both routers and hosts, creating a decentralized network without the need for a central infrastructure. This allows for increased flexibility and scalability in wireless communication, especially in emergency or disaster scenarios where traditional communication infrastructure may be unavailable. Some examples of SPANC applications include disaster response, search and rescue, and urban crowd management.

Uses: Smart Phone Ad hoc Network (SPANC) can be used for a variety of applications, including:

  • Emergency communication: In the event of a natural disaster or other emergency, SPANCs can be used to establish a communication network quickly, allowing people to contact emergency services or stay in touch with loved ones.
  • Remote areas: SPANCs can be useful in remote areas where traditional wireless networks are not available, such as rural communities or wilderness areas.
  • Event networking: SPANCs can be used to create a temporary network for events or gatherings, allowing attendees to communicate and share information.
  • Military and emergency services: SPANCs can be used by military and emergency services to establish a quick and reliable communication network in the field.
  • Content sharing: SPANCs can be used to share various types of content such as pictures and videos, as well as other forms of multimedia.
  • Research and Development: SPANCs can be used in various research and development projects such as security, routing, and energy consumption.
  • Crowdsourcing: SPANCs can be used to gather data from a large group of people, such as in a survey or study.
  • Advertising and marketing: SPANCs can be used to deliver targeted advertising and marketing messages to a specific group of people.

 

         3.  Internet based Mobile Ad hoc Network (iMANETs) – 
                                     It supports internet protocols such as TCP/UDP and IP. To link mobile nodes and establish routes distributed and automatically. An iMANETs is a hybrid network that combines the characteristics of both traditional mobile ad-hoc networks and the Internet. In iMANETs , mobile devices act as routers and hosts, and use the Internet to connect to other nodes in the network. This allows for increased connectivity and global reach, as well as the ability to leverage existing Internet infrastructure for data transfer and communication. Applications of iMANETs include smart cities, IoT, and mobile edge computing.

Uses: There are several potential use cases for Internet-based Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (iMANETs):

  • Smart Cities: iMANETs can be used to create smart city infrastructure, enabling the real-time monitoring and management of urban services such as traffic, parking, and energy use.
  • Internet of Things (IoT): iMANETs can be used to connect IoT devices and enable communication and data transfer between them, even in areas without a strong cellular or Wi-Fi signal.
  • Mobile Edge Computing (MEC): iMANETs can be used to support MEC, enabling the processing of data and computation at the edge of the network, rather than in a central location. This can reduce latency and improve responsiveness for applications such as augmented reality and autonomous vehicles.
  • Emergency and Disaster Response: iMANETs can be used to quickly establish communication networks in emergency or disaster scenarios where traditional infrastructure may be damaged or unavailable.
  • Military and Defence: iMANETs can be used for military and defense communication, providing mobile and secure networking for military operations in remote and rugged environments.
  • Remote Healthcare: iMANETs can be used to connect remote healthcare facilities and patients, enabling real-time monitoring and consultation with healthcare professionals.
  • Public Safety: iMANETs can be used to create communication networks for public safety and security, such as for police and fire departments, enabling real-time coordination and response in emergency situations.
     

         4.  Hub-Spoke MANET: 
                                     Multiple sub MANET’s may be connected in hub-spoke VPN to create a geographically distributed MANET. Normal Ad-hoc routing algorithm does not apply directly.  The hub node acts as a central point of communication and routing, connecting the spoke nodes to each other and to other networks, such as the Internet.

Uses: There are several potential use cases for Hub-Spoke Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs):

  • Military and Defense: Hub-Spoke MANETs can be used for military and defense communication, providing a central point of control for communication and coordination in remote and rugged environments.
  • Emergency and Disaster Response: Hub-Spoke MANETs can be used to quickly establish communication networks in emergency or disaster scenarios where traditional infrastructure may be damaged or unavailable. The hub node can be used to coordinate communication among first responders and other emergency personnel.
  • Public Safety: Hub-Spoke MANETs can be used to create communication networks for public safety and security, such as for police and fire departments, enabling real-time coordination and response in emergency situations.
  • Industrial and Mining: Hub-Spoke MANETs can be used for communication and monitoring in industrial and mining operations, where a central point of control is needed to coordinate communication and data transfer among multiple mobile devices.
  • Transportation: Hub-Spoke MANETs can be used to coordinate communication among vehicles and transportation infrastructure, such as traffic lights and toll booths, to improve traffic flow and reduce congestion.
  • Healthcare: Hub-Spoke MANETs can be used to connect remote healthcare facilities and patients, enabling real-time monitoring and consultation with healthcare professionals. The hub node can be used to coordinate communication and data transfer among multiple mobile devices in a healthcare facility.
  • Smart Grid: Hub-Spoke MANETs can be used to connect and control distributed energy resources, such as solar panels and wind turbines, in a smart grid network. The hub node can be used to coordinate communication and data transfer among multiple mobile devices and to monitor and control the power flow in the network.
     

         5. Military or Tactical MANETs – 
                                    This is used by the military units. Emphasis on data rate, real-time demand, fast re-routing during mobility, security, radio range, etc.  that are designed specifically for use in military and tactical operations. They are designed to provide mobile, secure, and reliable communication in challenging environments, such as in remote or rugged terrain or in areas with limited or no infrastructure.

Uses: Military or Tactical Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) have several potential uses in military and tactical operations, including:

  • Command and Control: Tactical MANETs can be used to provide real-time communication and coordination among military personnel and units, allowing for effective command and control in the field.
  • Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR): Tactical MANETs can be used to provide real-time situational awareness and intelligence gathering in the field, allowing for effective decision-making and mission planning.
  • Situational Awareness: Tactical MANETs can be used to share real-time information and location data among military personnel and units, providing enhanced situational awareness and enabling more effective decision-making in the field.
  • Logistics: Tactical MANETs can be used to coordinate logistics operations, such as supply chain management, in the field.
  • Emergency Response: Tactical MANETs can be used to provide communication and coordination among emergency responders in the field, enabling effective response to natural disasters or other emergency situations.
  • Public Safety: Tactical MANETs can be used to provide communication and coordination among public safety personnel, such as police and fire fighters, in the field.
  • Search and Rescue: Tactical MANETs can be used to provide communication and coordination among search and rescue teams in the field, enabling efficient and effective search and rescue operations.
  • Disaster Recovery: Tactical MANETs can be used to provide communication and coordination in the field following a disaster, allowing for rapid response and recovery efforts.

These are some examples but not limited to these as the uses of Tactical MANETs can be diverse based on the context and the requirements of the operations.
 

         6. Flying Ad hoc Network (FANETs) – 
This is composed of unmanned aerial vehicles (commonly known as drones). Provides links to remote areas and mobility. Flying Ad-hoc Networks (FANETs) are a specialized type of mobile ad-hoc network that are designed specifically for use in aerial vehicles, such as drones, UAVs, and UGVs. They enable communication and coordination among a group of flying vehicles in a decentralized and self-organizing manner.

FANETs provide a flexible and reliable communication infrastructure for aerial vehicles, allowing for real-time data collection and transmission, as well as navigation and control. They can operate in a standalone mode or can be connected to other networks, such as satellite or cellular networks, to provide extended communication capabilities.

Uses: FANETs have several potential uses in various fields such as:

  • Military and defense: FANETs can be used for reconnaissance, surveillance, and intelligence gathering, as well as for communication and coordination among military personnel and units.
  • Emergency response: FANETs can be used to provide communication and coordination among emergency responders in the field, enabling effective response to natural disasters or other emergency situations.
  • Civil aviation: FANETs can be used for air traffic management and control, as well as for communication and coordination among commercial and private aircraft.
  • Environmental monitoring: FANETs can be used to collect and transmit data for environmental monitoring and research, such as for monitoring air and water quality, or for monitoring wildlife populations.
  • Agriculture: FANETs can be used for precision agriculture, such as for monitoring crop health and for controlling crop-dusting drones.
  • Search and Rescue: FANETs can be used to provide communication and coordination among search and rescue teams, enabling efficient and effective search and rescue operations.
  • Infrastructure inspection: FANETs can be used for inspecting and monitoring large-scale infrastructure, such as bridges, buildings, and power lines.
  • Media and Entertainment: FANETs can be used for live streaming and for capturing high-quality video and images for use in media and entertainment.
     

 


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