Trust Based Energy-Efficient and Secure Routing Protocols for IoT

There are many network designs and Internet of Things (IoT) models (devices) that are at work presently, but these lack either in terms of energy efficiency or aren’t optimized.

To send information from source to destination node is most important task to be carried out in large scale and dynamic IoT environment. Thus, node may be repeated many times while finding shortest path, that decreases lifespan of node and network becomes dead which leads to partitioning of network. The Internet of things is platform where electronic devices are connected to Internet that can interact with each other and transmit data to others.

This reduces human intervention in machine cycle. These machines are continuously in touch with each other and adapts to needs and modifies their functionality. IoT allows network connection between smart gadgets at all times, everywhere, and about everything.


Figure – Proposed Trust Mechanism



Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) play vital role in increasing omnipresence of networks with smart devices that are cost effective and easy to deploy. The IoT devices face lot of architectural issues like energy efficiency, network topology, failure in long range communication, increase in traffic and decrease in lifespan of device.



Additional factors for performance evaluation :

  • Trust Factor –
    The trust factor of node is how efficiently it transmits data packet to destination node using minimum amount of energy.


    Figure – Direct and Indirect Trust



    It is factor that is determined using mathematical function which increases gradually but decreases rapidly. This helps us in optimizing and energy consumption. Thus we are able to send more data packets without losing lots of energy.


    Figure – Flowchart of Trust-Based algorithm


  • Energy remaining in node –
    Nodes loose some energy while sending data packets, thus we need to select only those nodes which have maximum energy compared to other nodes.




    Here we select both best and second-best path, if node continuously sends data packets, they lose energy every time and make it energy deficient. To avoid this situation, we use second-best path for energy efficient network design.

  • Life Quality Index (LQI) –
    This indicates lifespan of an IoT device. Device which has more LQI factor, has long-term life span. It detects quality effectiveness of device.

  • Hop Count –
    It refers to number of intermediate nodes between source and destination. A large number of hops in network implies lower real time performance. So, we are targeting to decrease number of hops counts as much as possible. If number of hop count decreases than IoT devices can perform for long span of time.




    If we are able to implement this protocol in desired manner then it would be humongous achievement as it would open doors for faster , secured and energy efficient IoT based network transmission.

Conclusion and Future Scope :
The IoT devices are smarter than any device but still possess lot of scope for improvement. Security is concern for it as hackers may hack network. Speed of communications is low, so there is scope to enhance that. Wireless devices can get distracted by various means, thus we need to make it more reliable. Devices must be made scalable to large extent and cost effective as well. Life span of node is not very high so there is future scope to make it span longer. Lastly, there is huge scope to optimize IoT devices in terms of energy efficiency.

In future we would see that people are fond of wireless devices which make their life easier and provides comfort. Devices must avoid lot of wiring and should be Flexible to go through physical partitions and must be accessed through centralized monitor.

Wireless sensors networks also possess potential for many applications. Advancement of technology allows creation of WSNs, but hardware and software both have huge scope before WSNs become practical, secure and cost-efficient.

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