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Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs of India

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  • Last Updated : 15 Jun, 2022
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Natural Vegetation refers to the plant community which has grown naturally without human help or untouched by humans. The Natural vegetation which has been left undisturbed for a long time is termed Virgin vegetation. Therefore there are so many crops, fruits, and orchards that are part of vegetation but they are not part of natural vegetation. Natural vegetation here refers to the natural forest, which is a community of living trees and associated species that covers a large area and uses sunlight, air, water, and earthy resources to mature and reproduce; it is capable of providing essential products and services to humanity. 

In the world, there are 12 mega biodiversity countries, and our country India is one of them. India has a huge variety of Flora and Fauna. India has held a tenth place in the world with about 47000 plant species and fourth in Asia in plant diversity. About 15000 flowering plants are there in India which is 6% of the total world’s flowering plants. India has many non-flowering plants like ferns, algae, and fungi. In its Fresh and Marine water, India has a total of 80000 species of animals as well as a rich variety of fish.

Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs 

India has a forest-covered landmass of 7,12,249 square kilometers, with tropical thorn forest covering 16,491 square kilometers. In India, tropical thorn forests may be found in southwest Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh, among other places. Babool tree, ber tree, wild date palm, Khair tree, neem, khejri tree, palas tree, and other tropical thorn forest trees include Babool tree, ber tree, and wild date palm. A thorn forest is defined by thick scrubland with dry subtropical plants and mild temperate sections. Seasonal rainfall ranges between 250 to 500 millimeters. 

A thorn forest is mostly composed of thorny little trees that shed their leaves yearly during the dry season and frequently have photosynthetic bark.
Many are sclerophyllous plants with thin leathery leaves that help to reduce water loss, and some have extensive roots that reach deep into the soil to obtain groundwater. 

Armed species of the pea family (Fabaceae), including Mimosa and Acacia, as well as some palms, are abundant in many thorn kinds of wood. The ground layer is made up of cacti or other armed succulents like Euphorbia, thick-stemmed plants, prickly brush, and arid-adapted grasses.
During the brief wet season, many annual plants, known as spring ephemerals, sprout, blossom, and perish. 

Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs are the forests that found in North – Western part of the country including semi-arid areas of Gujarat, Rajasthan, UttarPradesh, Chhattisgarh, Haryana and Madhya Pradesh and in this areas annual rainfall is less than 70 cm. Thorn Forest is a scrub-like desert structure. They’re typically tropical and subtropical woodlands with thorny and spiney trees and shrubs. The vegetation is scant, with big trees planted against barren terrain lacking in grass. 

Characteristics Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs 

  • Thorn Forests and Scrubs are prevalent in areas with less than 70cm of rainfall. The humidity level is less than 50%.
  • The average temperature is between 25° and 30° C.
  • Thorn woods, which are common in dry places, receive relatively little rainfall.
  • The trees are short (6 to 10 meters tall at most) and widely dispersed.
  • These woodlands are covered in prickly trees and plants. Acacias and Euphorbias are abundant.
  • The Indian wild date is widely available. Some grasses grow during the wet season as well.
  • The thick and tiny leaves of the trees and bushes discovered serve to minimize evaporation.
  • For most portion of the year, the plants are leafless and dispersed.
  • The average length of the trees runs from 6 to 10 meters, which is short when compared to other types of vegetation or woods. 

Sample Questions

Question 1: Difference between Thorn forests and Mangrove forests?

Answer:

Thorn forests

Mangrove Forests

Found in area annual rainfall is less than 70 cm Found in the delta region and not dependent on rainfall
lack of moisture adequate amount of moisture as submerged under water
Babool , Cactus , Acacia are the examples Sundari , Palm , Coconut etc are the examples

Question 2: Explain If we don’t conserve our fauna then the survival of man is at stake?

Answer:

It is absolutely correct that survival of man is at risk if we dont conserve fauna because they play a important role in our life and provide as food and helps in the cultivation and ploughing the fields .

Question 3: What are the vulnerable species?

Answer:

Vulnerable Species are the species where population have declined to levels and if the factors responsible for its decline are not checked and it will be endangered.

Example- Asiatic elephant, blue sheep, Gangetic dolphin, etc.

Question 4: What is the use of Jamun and Tulsi medicinal plants?

Answer:

  • Jamun- It is useful because its juice from its ripe fruit is used to prepare vinegar as well this is used for controlling diabetes .
  • Tulsi- Tulsi is very good for the health and it is used for the cold and cough treatment .

Question 5: Where is the Sundari tree found? What is its importance?

Answer: 

These trees are found in Ganga – Brahmaputra delta and it is used in the production of durable hard timber.

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