Tropical Deciduous Forests in India
Due to the country’s diverse temperature, morphology, and habitat, India’s flora is among the world’s most diverse. India is home to about 18,000 flowering plant species, accounting for around 7% of the world’s total plant species. More than 50,000 plant species, including a number of endemics, may be found in India. From ancient times, India has relied on plants as a source of healing.
There are around 3000 plant species in India, divided into eight floristic regions: the Western Himalayas, Eastern Himalayas, Assam, Indus plain, Ganges plain, Deccan, Malabar, and the Andaman Islands.
Natural Vegetation refers to the plant community which has grown naturally without human help or untouched by human. There are so many crops, fruits, orchards which are the part of vegetation but they are not the part of natural vegetation.
Tropical Deciduous Forests
The term “tropical” denotes that these woods are found in the country’s tropical regions. Temperate deciduous or temperate broad-leaf forests are types of temperate forests that are ‘dominated’ by trees that shed their leaves each year. They live in locations with warm, humid summers and chilly winters. This forest type is found in six major places in the Northern Hemisphere: North America, East Asia, Central and Western Europe (excluding Brittany, Cornwall, Wales, Ireland, and western Scotland), Denmark, southern Sweden, and southern Norway, and in the southern hemisphere in Patagonia (Chile and Argentina).
Temperate evergreen forests are found in Australasia, New Zealand, and southern South America (with the exception of some locations in Chile and Argentina that have deciduous forests), although they are not as deciduous as their northern-hemisphere counterparts. In the Northern Hemisphere, characteristic species include oak, maple, basswood, beech, and elm, but in the Southern Hemisphere, trees of the genus Nothofagus dominate this kind of forest. These are India’s most widespread forests.
Tropical deciduous forests are found mostly in South Africa, Central America, Africa, and India, where they grow in a moderately hot temperature of thirty degrees Celsius. Despite being constantly heated, these places have sufficient moisture to support the growth of plants and bushes. These woods are usually thick and packed, and seasonal changes are common. Around the end of fall and the beginning of winter, deciduous woodlands are well known for shedding their leaves. Plants and trees that shed their leaves each year are referred to as deciduous Because the trees in these woods shed their leaves during the dry season,
Furthermore, these woodland regions are prone to significant rains on a regular basis. The vast majority of tropical woods are located between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, making them extremely humid. These forests are widespread in India, It is mainly found in the region receiving rainfall between 200 cm and 70 cm. These forests are also known as Monsoon forests. Examples of animals found in these forests are lions, tigers, elephants, pigs and deer. Some other species are birds, lizards, which are also found in these forests.
Types of Tropical Deciduous Forests
There are two types of Tropical deciduous forest –
Moist Deciduous Forests
These Forests are mostly found in the Eastern part of the country such as North-Eastern states like West Odisha, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh. where annual rainfall areas are between 100 and 200 cm. These forests are called Moist deciduous. Trees of these forests are used for commercial purposes.
For Example Teak, bamboo, sal, shisham, sandalwood etc are found in these forests.
Dry Deciduous Forests
These forests are found where rainfalls lie between 70 to 100 cm in the rainier parts of the Peninsular plateau and the plains of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. These forests are basically used for agricultural activities and for grazing. The temperature in these forests lies between 16°C to 23°C. It is characterized by canopies. Sunlight can easily reach the ground which helps the growth of grasses in this type of forest,
For Example Teak, Sal, peepal, and neem trees are found in these forests.
Factors affecting Tropical Deciduous Forests
- Human activities such as irrigation and agricultural operations have harmed these woods. One of the main reasons why these woods are under threat is the growing pace of deforestation. These actions are causing a lot of stress, as they are destroying nature’s essential ecosystems. These actions endanger both flora and fauna species, as well as contribute to a large percentage of carbon dioxide emissions, which increases global warming.
- Furthermore, several parasites or illnesses can lead to a decrease in the quality of these forests’ resources, making them a severe problem. There have also been many examples of disastrous wildfires that have gone out of control in recent days. All of these concerns constitute a significant threat to the woods’ survival.
- Forests occupy over 33% of the country’s total land area. And, in terms of both quality and quantity, these fast climatic fluctuations have an impact on their development.
- As a result, deforestation, agricultural practices, and overgrazing have wreaked havoc on deciduous forest ecosystems across the world. Some of these lands are being turned entirely to agricultural use.
- These are serious challenges because these woods are home to a diverse range of animals, and any long-term harm to these creatures would have a direct impact on our own survival.
Question 1: Define biome?
It is referred to a very large ecosystem on land having distinct types of vegetation and animal life .
Question 2: What is the wild protection act of 1972?
This wild protection act 1972 is for the protection of wild life and so as to enhance the ecological and environmental structure of the country, and To protect the animal habitat from various human activities like hunting, cutting down of forests.
Question 3: Give two initiates step taken by the government for the safety of the forest?
- Forest conservation Act 1980 : This act gives the power to the states to control the deforestation rates.
- Article 51-A(g) : This act is to encourage the every Indian to protect and promote the natural environment.
Question 4: Explain how Indian People has affected the forest?
Humans affect the forest in many ways and also effect the ecology of a region,
- By excessive exploitation of the plants resources by human being which leads to disturbance in the ecosystem .
- By cutting the trees and excess use of forest land for personal use .
Question 5: What are steps to overcome the problem of decreasing wildlife?
Decreasing wildlife is because of the greedy hunters as there is high demand of animals product,
- By making humans aware for the protection and conservation of wild life.
- By giving opportunities to the local peoples like forest guide, tourist guide