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Training Neural Networks using Pytorch Lightning
  • Last Updated : 26 Nov, 2020

Introduction:

PyTorch Lightning is a library that provides a high-level interface for PyTorch. Problem with PyTorch is that every time you start a project you have to rewrite those training and testing loop. PyTorch Lightning fixes the problem by not only reducing boilerplate code but also providing added functionality that might come handy while training your neural networks. One of the things I love about Lightning is that the code is very organized and reusable, and not only that but it reduces the training and testing loop while retain the flexibility that PyTorch is known for. And once you learn how to use it you’ll see how similar the code is to that of PyTorch.

Installing PyTorch Lightning:

Installing Lightning is same as that of any other library in python.

pip install pytorch-lightning

or if you want to install it in a conda environment you can use the following command:-



conda install -c conda-forge pytorch-lightning

PyTorch Lightning Model Format:

If you have ever used PyTorch you must know that defining PyTorch model follows the following format

from torch import nn

class model(nn.Module):
    def __init__(self):
        # Define Model Here
        
    def forward(self, x):
        # Define Forward Pass Here

That’s how we define a model in PyTorch now after defining loop we usually define loss, optimizer and training outside the class. In PyTorch Lightning, the way to define model is similar except for the fact that we add the loss, optimizer and training steps in the model itself. To define a lightning model we follow the following format:-

import pytorch-lightning as pl

class model(pl.LightningModule):
    def __init__(self):
        # Define Model Here
        
    def forward(self, x):
        # Define Forward Pass Here
    
    def configure_optimizers(self):
       # Define Optimizer Here
       
    def training_step(self, train_batch, batch_idx):
        # Define Training loop steps here
        
    def validation_step(self, valid_batch, batch_idx):
        # Define Validation loop steps here

Note: The names of the above functions should be exactly the same.

Training our Neural Network:

Loading Our Data:

For this tutorial we are going to be using MNIST dataset, so we’ll start by loading our data and defining the model afterwards. To load data for Lightning Model you can either define DataLoaders as you do in PyTorch and pass both train dataloader and validation dataloader in pl.Trainer() function or you can use LightingDataModule which does the same thing except now you do the steps in a python class. To create dataloaders we follow the following step:-

Loading Data by Creating  DataLoaders:



from torchvision import datasets,transforms
from torch.utils.data import DataLoader

transform = transforms.Compose([
    transforms.ToTensor()
])

train = datasets.MNIST('',train = True, download = True, transform=transform)
test = datasets.MNIST('',train = False, download = True, transform=transform)

trainloader = DataLoader(train, batch_size= 32, shuffle=True)
testloader = DataLoader(test, batch_size= 32, shuffle=True)

To creating LightningDataModule we follow the following steps:-

Loading Data by Creating LightningDataModule:

import pytorch-lightning as pl
from torchvision import datasets,transforms
from torch.utils.data import DataLoader

class Data(pl.LightningDataModule):
    def prepare_data(self):
        transform=transforms.Compose([
            transforms.ToTensor()
        ])
      
        self.train_data = datasets.MNIST('', train=True, download=True, transform=transform)
        self.test_data = datasets.MNIST('', train=False, download=True, transform=transform)

    def train_dataloader(self):
        return DataLoader(self.train_data, batch_size= 32, shuffle=True)

    def val_dataloader(self):
        return DataLoader(self.test_data, batch_size= 32, shuffle=True)

Note: The names of the above functions should be exactly the same.

This is how you create Lightning Data Module. Creating dataloaders can get messy thats why its better to club the dataset in form of Data Module.

Defining Our Neural Network

Defining the model in PyTorch lighting is pretty much the same as that in PyTorch except now we are clubbing everything inside our model class.

from torch import nn
import pytorch_lightning as pl
import torch.nn.functional as F
from torch.optim import SGD

class model(pl.LightningModule):
    def __init__(self):
        super(model,self).__init__()
        self.fc1 = nn.Linear(28*28,256)
        self.fc2 = nn.Linear(256,128)
        self.out = nn.Linear(128,10)
        self.lr = 0.01
        self.loss = nn.CrossEntropyLoss()
    
    def forward(self,x):
        batch_size, _, _, _ = x.size()
        x = x.view(batch_size,-1)
        x = F.relu(self.fc1(x))
        x = F.relu(self.fc2(x))
        return self.out(x)
    
    def configure_optimizers(self):
        return SGD(self.parameters(),lr = self.lr)
    
    def training_step(self, train_batch, batch_idx):
        x, y = train_batch
        logits = self.forward(x)
        loss = self.loss(logits,y)
        return loss
    
    def validation_step(self, valid_batch, batch_idx):
        x, y = valid_batch
        logits = self.forward(x)
        loss = self.loss(logits,y)

We’ll further discuss how training_step() differs from the steps in Training Loop in Pytorch and other difference between Lightning Model and Pytorch model.

Training Our Model

To training model in Pytorch, you first have to write the training loop but the Trainer class in Lightning makes the tasks easier. To Train model in Lightning:-

# Create Model Object
clf = model()
# Create Data Module Object
mnist = Data()
# Create Trainer Object
trainer = pl.Trainer(gpus=1,accelerator='dp',max_epochs=5)
trainer.fit(clf,mnist)

Note: `dp` is DataParallel (split batch among GPUs of same machine).

Note: If you have loaded data by creating dataloaders you can fit trainer by trainer.fit(clf,trainloader,testloader).

Difference Between PyTorch Model and Lightning Model:

As we can see the first difference between PyTorch and lightning model is the class that the model class inherits:-

PyTorch

class model(nn.Module):

PyTorch-Lightning

class model(pl.LightningModule):

__init__() method

In both Pytorch and and Lightning Model we use the __init__() method to define our layers, since in lightning we club everything together we can also define other hyper parameters like learning rate for optimizer and the loss function.

PyTorch

def __init__(self):
    super(model,self).__init__()
    self.fc1 = nn.Linear(28*28,256)
    self.fc2 = nn.Linear(256,128)
    self.out = nn.Linear(128,10)

Pytorch-Lightning

def __init__(self):
    super(model,self).__init__()
    self.fc1 = nn.Linear(28*28,256)
    self.fc2 = nn.Linear(256,128)
    self.out = nn.Linear(128,10)
    self.lr = 0.01
    self.loss = nn.CrossEntropyLoss()

forward() method:

In both Pytorch and Lightning Model we use the forward() method to define our forward pass, hence it is same for both.

PyTorch and PyTorch-Lightning

def forward(self,x):
    batch_size, _, _, _ = x.size()
    x = x.view(batch_size,-1)
    x = F.relu(self.fc1(x))
    x = F.relu(self.fc2(x))
    return self.out(x)

Defining Optimizer:

In PyTorch, we usually define our optimizers by directly creating their object but in PyTorch-lightning we define our optimizers under configure_optimizers() method. Another thing to note is that in PyTorch we pass model object parameters as the arguments for optimizer but in lightning, we pass self.parameters() since the class is the model itself.

PyTorch 

from torch.optim import SGD
clf = model()    # Pytorch Model Object
optimizer = SGD(clf.parameters(),lr=0.01)

PyTorch-Lightning

def configure_optimizers(self):
    return SGD(self.parameters(),lr = self.lr)

Note: You can create multiple optimizers in lightning too.

Training Loop(Step):

It won’t be wrong to say that this is what makes Lightning stand out from PyTorch. In PyTorch we define the full training loop while in lightning we use the Trainer() to do the job. But we still define the steps that are going to be executed while training.

PyTorch

epochs = 5

for i in range(epochs):
    train_loss = 0.0
    for data,label in trainloader:
        if is_gpu:
            data, label = data.cuda(), label.cuda()
        output = model(data)
        optimizer.zero_grad()
        loss = criterion(output,label)
        loss.backward()
        optimizer.step()
        
        train_loss += loss.item() * data.size(0)
    print(f'Epoch: {i+1} / {epochs} \t\t\t Training Loss:{train_loss/len(trainloader)}')

PyTorch-Lightning

def training_step(self, train_batch, batch_idx):
    x, y = train_batch
    logits = self.forward(x)
    loss = self.loss(logits,y)
    return loss


See how in training steps we just write the steps necessary(bolded). 

Code

Python3

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import torch
from torch import nn
import pytorch_lightning as pl
import torch.nn.functional as F
from torchvision import datasets, transforms
from torch.utils.data import DataLoader
from torch.optim import SGD
  
  
class model(pl.LightningModule):
    def __init__(self):
        super(model, self).__init__()
        self.fc1 = nn.Linear(28*28, 256)
        self.fc2 = nn.Linear(256, 128)
        self.out = nn.Linear(128, 10)
        self.lr = 0.01
        self.loss = nn.CrossEntropyLoss()
  
    def forward(self, x):
        batch_size, _, _, _ = x.size()
        x = x.view(batch_size, -1)
        x = F.relu(self.fc1(x))
        x = F.relu(self.fc2(x))
        return self.out(x)
  
    def configure_optimizers(self):
        return torch.optim.SGD(self.parameters(), lr=self.lr)
  
    def training_step(self, train_batch, batch_idx):
        x, y = train_batch
        logits = self.forward(x)
        loss = self.loss(logits, y)
        return loss
  
    def validation_step(self, valid_batch, batch_idx):
        x, y = valid_batch
        logits = self.forward(x)
        loss = self.loss(logits, y)
  
  
class Data(pl.LightningDataModule):
    def prepare_data(self):
        transform = transforms.Compose([
            transforms.ToTensor()
        ])
  
        self.train_data = datasets.MNIST(
            '', train=True, download=True, transform=transform)
        self.test_data = datasets.MNIST(
            '', train=False, download=True, transform=transform)
  
    def train_dataloader(self):
        return DataLoader(self.train_data, batch_size=32, shuffle=True)
  
    def val_dataloader(self):
        return DataLoader(self.test_data, batch_size=32, shuffle=True)
  
  
clf = model()
mnist = Data()
trainer = pl.Trainer(gpus=1, accelerator='dp', max_epochs=5)
trainer.fit(clf, mnist)

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