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Top 7 Programming Languages for Backend Web Development

Last Updated : 20 Mar, 2024
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Even if you’re a beginner the least you would have known is that Web Development is majorly classified into two facets: Frontend Development and Backend Development. And obviously, they both have their respective set of tools and technologies. For instance, when we talk about Frontend Development, there always comes 3 names first and foremost – HTML, CSS, and JavaScript.  


In the same way, when it comes to Backend Web Development – we primarily require a backend (or you can say server-side) programming language to make the website function along with various other tools & technologies such as databases, frameworks, web servers, etc.  

But as there are hundreds of programming languages out there, which language should you choose for backend web development…??

Okay, let us tell you – you’re required to pick out a programming language by considering various parameters such as project requirements, its learning curve, performance, reliability, etc. In addition, you’re also required to consider the demand and popularity of the particular programming language in the tech world, especially if you’re looking forward to learning a programming language from your career perspectives, as there is no point in learning a programming language that has got outdated or not in demand in the market.  

Here, in this article, we’re providing you with a list of top programming languages that you can consider learning to get started with web development:  

1. JavaScript

Whenever there is a talk of web development – most probably, 9 out of 10 times the name of JavaScript comes in the discussion. As per the annual reports of various popular platforms like Stack Overflow and Octoverse – JavaScript is one of the most preferred and leading programming languages in the tech world. One of the major reasons behind it is that the particular language can be used for both – Front End Web Development and Back End Web Development. Looking at several past trends and stats, it can be said that the popularity of Node.js has somehow increased the usage of JavaScript as a backend language for web development. Meanwhile, the language provides you with several remarkable features for backend development such as Light-weight Scripting language, Dynamic Typing, Interpreted, Object-Oriented programming support, Client-Side Validation, Huge community support, and many more.  

  • JavaScript Frameworks for Backend Web Development: Next.js, Express, MeteorJS, etc.  
  • Popular websites that are using JavaScript: Facebook, Google, eBay, etc.  

2. Python  

Though Python is quite famous among individuals for its compatibility with advanced technologies like Machine Learning, Internet of Things (IoT), Data Science, etc. – let us tell you that this enriching programming language is widely used and very much suitable for backend web development also. Even one of the leading IT giants of the current times Google significantly relies on Python, and it is one of the 3 primary languages used by Google (the other two are Java and C++). One of the major advantages of using Python for web development is its huge collection of standard libraries that make the work of developers comparatively easier and efficient. The additional prominent and unique features of Python such as better code readability. easier integration with other languages, GUI Programming support, portability, and numerous others makes it a more preferred language among web developers.

  • Python Frameworks for Backend Web Development: Django, Flask, Pyramid, etc.
  • Popular websites that are using Python: Spotify, Pinterest, Instacart, etc.

3. PHP

PHP (or you can say Hypertext Preprocessor) is a veteran player in the web development world. This open-source server-side scripting language is created in 1994 and is specifically used for web development. As it is an interpreted language – it doesn’t require a compiler either and also it can run on almost every major operating system like Windows, Linux, macOS, Unix, etc. Talking about the enriching features of PHP, there are so many such as easy to learn nature, cross-platform compatibility, OOPs features, support to various standard databases like MySQL, SQLite, etc. huge community support, and many others. Other than that, PHP is very much secure as a server-side scripting language as there are numerous hash functions available in PHP for the encryption of user’s data. In particular, if you’re a beginner – you can opt to go with PHP for backend web development.

  • PHP Frameworks for Backend Web Development: Laravel, CodeIgniter, Symfony, etc.
  • Popular websites that are using PHP: WordPress, MailChimp, Flickr, etc.

4. Java

Java is another exemplary programming language for backend web development. The object-oriented programming language is widely used for developing enterprise-scale web applications along with the development of android applications, desktop applications, scientific applications, etc. The primary advantage of using Java is that it works on the Write Once Run Anywhere principle i.e, the compiled Java code can be executed on any platform that supports Java without the need for recompilation. In more specific terms, the Java code is first compiled into byte code which is machine-independent and then this byte code runs on the JVM regardless of the underlying architecture. Besides, Java supports multithreading that allows the concurrent execution of two or more threads for maximum utilization of CPU. Other additional features of Java are – platform-independent, follows the OOP concepts, rich open-source libraries, automatic memory allocation & garbage collection, portability, etc.

  • Java Frameworks for Backend Web Development: Spring, Struts, Grails
  • Popular websites that are using Java: LinkedIn, IRCTC, Yahoo, etc.

5. Ruby

Ruby is a general-purpose, interpreted programming language that supports various programming paradigms such as procedural, functional, and object-oriented programming. The language is being widely used for web development across the world and is very much recommended to beginners for getting started with backend web development as it is comparatively easier to learn. Alike Python, Ruby also focuses on increasing the developers’ productivity that eventually fastens the web development process. The particular language supports almost every major platform such as Windows, Mac, and Linux, and let us tell you this as well that Ruby is highly based on many other programming languages like Perl, Lisp, Eiffel, Ada, etc. Dynamic typing and Duck typing, Automatic garbage collection, Large standard library, Custom dispatch behavior, Flexibility & Scalability, Centralized package management through RubyGems, etc. are some of the prominent features that come up with Ruby.

  • Ruby Frameworks for Backend Web Development: Ruby on Rails, Sinatra, Grape, etc.
  • Popular websites that are using Ruby: Airbnb, Shopify, Slideshare, etc.

6. Golang

If you’re thinking that Go is not that popular among the developers then let us tell you as per last year’s report of Stack Overflow – it was one of the top 5 most loved programming languages by developers across the world. Go is a statically typed programming language that is designed at Google and having syntax quite similar to C language. The language allows the developers to build scalable and secure web applications more efficiently. One of the major advantages of using Go is that it provides excellent support for multithreading and also, it has the garbage collection feature for automatic memory management. Some of the other considerable features of Go language are – easy to learn, readable code, backed by Google, compiled language, package management, powerful standard library, concurrency support, high-performance, and many more.

  • Go Frameworks for Backend Web Development: beego, echo, revel, etc.
  • Popular websites that are using Go: Dropbox, SoundCloud, Dailymotion, etc.

7. C#

C# is one of those few languages that is constantly ranking under the top 5 programming languages at various standard indices for the last few years. Though, you need to know that this general-purpose language was initially developed by Microsoft primarily for the .Net framework. Alongside, backend web development, now C# is extensively being used in multiple areas such as the development of Windows applications, game development, etc. The language provides you with various enriching features such as faster compilation, interoperability, scalable & updatable, component-oriented & structured language, and many others. In addition, C# comes up with a rich set of libraries that helps the developers for a faster and efficient development process. Hence, if you’re in a search of a programming language for a backend web developer – you can give it a try to C# as well.

  • C# Frameworks for Backend Web Development: .NET
  • Popular websites that are using C#: GoDaddy, Marketwatch, Stack Overflow, etc.

So, we have mentioned the most recommended and worthwhile programming languages for backend web development that you can consider learning. However, let us remind you again that before picking out any particular language from the above-mentioned ones, you need to consider various individual aspects also like your goals, project requirements, learning curve, etc.  

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