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Time Functions in Python | Set 1 (time(), ctime(), sleep()…)
• Difficulty Level : Easy
• Last Updated : 10 Feb, 2020

Python has defined a module, “time” which allows us to handle various operations regarding time, its conversions and representations, which find its use in various applications in life. The beginning of time is started measuring from 1 January, 12:00 am, 1970 and this very time is termed as “epoch” in Python.

Operations on Time :

1. time() :- This function is used to count the number of seconds elapsed since the epoch.

2. gmtime(sec) :- This function returns a structure with 9 values each representing a time attribute in sequence. It converts seconds into time attributes(days, years, months etc.) till specified seconds from epoch. If no seconds are mentioned, time is calculated till present. The structure attribute table is given below.

```Index   Attributes   Values
0        tm_year     2008
1        tm_mon      1 to 12
2        tm_mday     1 to 31
3        tm_hour     0 to 23
4        tm_min      0 to 59
5        tm_sec      0 to 61 (60 or 61 are leap-seconds)
6        tm_wday     0 to 6
7        tm_yday     1 to 366
8        tm_isdst    -1, 0, 1 where -1 means
Library determines DST
```
 `# Python code to demonstrate the working of``# time() and gmtime()`` ` `#  importing "time" module for time operations``import` `time`` ` `# using time() to display time since epoch``print` `(``"Seconds elapsed since the epoch are : "``,end``=``"")``print` `(time.time())`` ` ` ` `# using gmtime() to return the time attribute structure``print` `(``"Time calculated acc. to given seconds is : "``)``print` `(time.gmtime())`

Output:

```Seconds elapsed since the epoch are : 1470121951.9536893
Time calculated acc. to given seconds is :
time.struct_time(tm_year=2016, tm_mon=8, tm_mday=2,
tm_hour=7, tm_min=12, tm_sec=31, tm_wday=1,
tm_yday=215, tm_isdst=0)
```

3. asctime(“time”) :- This function takes a time attributed string produced by gmtime() and returns a 24 character string denoting time.

4. ctime(sec) :- This function returns a 24 character time string but takes seconds as argument and computes time till mentioned seconds. If no argument is passed, time is calculated till present.

 `# Python code to demonstrate the working of``# asctime() and ctime()`` ` `#  importing "time" module for time operations``import` `time`` ` `# initializing time using gmtime()``ti ``=` `time.gmtime()`` ` `# using asctime() to display time acc. to time mentioned``print` `(``"Time calculated using asctime() is : "``,end``=``"")``print` `(time.asctime(ti))`` ` ` ` `# using ctime() to diplay time string using seconds ``print` `(``"Time calculated using ctime() is : "``, end``=``"")``print` `(time.ctime())`

Output:

```Time calculated using asctime() is : Tue Aug  2 07:47:02 2016
Time calculated using ctime() is : Tue Aug  2 07:47:02 2016
```

5. sleep(sec) :- This method is used to hault the program execution for the time specified in the arguments.

 `# Python code to demonstrate the working of``# sleep()`` ` `#  importing "time" module for time operations``import` `time`` ` `# using ctime() to show present time``print` `(``"Start Execution : "``,end``=``"")``print` `(time.ctime())`` ` `# using sleep() to hault execution``time.sleep(``4``)`` ` `# using ctime() to show present time``print` `(``"Stop Execution : "``,end``=``"")``print` `(time.ctime())`

Output:

```Start Execution : Tue Aug  2 07:59:03 2016
Stop Execution : Tue Aug  2 07:59:07 2016
```

This article is contributed by Manjeet Singh. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to contribute@geeksforgeeks.org. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.

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