Theory of Computation | Decidability table

Prerequisite – Undecidability, Decidable and undecidable problems
Identifying languages (or problems*) as decidable, undecidable or partially decidable is a very common question in GATE. With correct knowledge and ample experience, this question becomes very easy to solve.

A language is undecidable if it is not decidable. An undecidable language maybe a partially decidable language or something else but not decidable. If a language is not even partially decidable , then there exists no Turing machine for that language.

In this topic you will see Decidability table and shortcut to learn them.

Problems RL DCFL CFL CSL Rec.L REL
Does ‘w’ belongs to language L? (i.e, membership problem, where ‘w’ is any string) D D D D D UD
Is L= null? (i.e, emptiness problem) D D D UD UD UD
Is L= E* ? (i.e, completeness problem.where, E* is set of all languages possible over given alphabet) D D UD UD UD UD
Is L1= L2 ? (i.e, equality problem. L1 and L2 are languages of same type.) D D UD UD UD UD
Is L1 subset of L2 ? (i.e, subset problem) D UD UD UD UD UD
Is L1 intersection of L2= null? D UD UD UD UD UD
Is ‘L’ finite or not? (i.e, finiteness problem) D D D UD UD UD
Is compliment of ‘L’ a language of same type or not? D D UD D D UD
Is intersection of two languages of same type or not? D UD UD D D D
Is ‘L’ regular language or not? (‘L’ is any language.) D D UD UD UD UD

In the above table,

'RL' implies Regular language.
'CFL' implies Context free language.
'DCFL' implies deterministic context free language.
'CSL' implies Context sensitive language.
'REC.L' implies Recursive language.
'REL' implies Recursive enumerable language.
'D' implies that the problem is decidable.
'UD' implies that the problem is undecidable.

Note:

  1. Regular language: It Decidable for all problems.
  2. CFL: It is decidable for emptiness problem, finiteness problem, and membership problem.
  3. CSL and REC.L: Both are decidable for membership problem, Is compliment of ‘L’ a language of same type or not?, and (Is intersection of two languages of same type or not?.
  4. REC: It is decidable for (Is intersection of two languages of same type or not?)
  5. DCFL It is decidable for everything decidable in CFL plus (Is compliment of ‘L’ a language of same type or not?), (Is ‘L’ regular language?).



My Personal Notes arrow_drop_up

Check out this Author's contributed articles.

If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to contribute@geeksforgeeks.org. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.

Please Improve this article if you find anything incorrect by clicking on the "Improve Article" button below.



Improved By : abhishek363