Open In App

The World Population has Grown Very Rapidly. Why?

Last Updated : 13 Feb, 2023
Like Article

The world population is growing at an unprecedented rate, and it is expected to reach almost 10 billion by 2050. This rapid population growth has far-reaching implications for the planet and its inhabitants. From the strain on resources and the environment to the pressure on infrastructure and housing, the effects of population growth are both complex and global.

World Population Growth

World Population Growth

Impact of Birth and Death Rates on Population Growth

The growth of a population is heavily influenced by the birth rate and death rate, with a high birth rate and low death rate leading to rapid population growth, and vice versa. The advancements in science and technology have played a major role in reducing death rates and increasing births, contributing to the world’s growing population. 

The population growth rate is determined by the balance between birth and death rates, as well as other factors such as migration, age distribution, and economic development. The factors affecting population growth are numerous and include economic stability, access to education, availability of family planning resources, cultural attitudes towards childbearing, government policies and programs, medical technology, living conditions, and quality and accessibility of healthcare. These factors vary from country to country and can result in a wide range of birth and death rates, leading to varying population growth rates. The significance of birth and death rates on population growth is highlighted in the following subheadings:

Decrease in Death Rates

Advancements in science and technology have played a crucial role in reducing death rates and improving life expectancy. Better food supplies, improved medicine, and the development of vaccines have all led to a decrease in the number of deaths. This has been a significant factor in the rapid growth of the world population.

Increase in Birth Rates

The birth rate has remained largely constant over time, which means the number of people born in the world has not changed significantly. However, the world population has still grown rapidly due to a combination of birth rate and growth rate factors, including the huge baby boom generation born in the 1940s and 1950s and fertility rates in certain countries.

Influences of Other Factors


Migration refers to the movement of individuals from one place to another, either within a country or across international borders. It can have a significant impact on population growth, as the number of people leaving a region can decrease its population, while the number of people moving into a region can increase its population.

For example, if more people move into a region than leave it, the population of that region will grow. Conversely, if more people leave a region than move into it, the population of that region will decline. In this way, migration can both drive and respond to changes in population growth.

Age Distribution

The age distribution of a population refers to the distribution of individuals across different age groups. The age distribution of a population can influence its growth rate, as different age groups have different birth and death rates. For example, a population with a high proportion of young people is likely to have a higher birth rate and a lower death rate than a population with a high proportion of older individuals.

Therefore, a country with a large proportion of young people is likely to have a higher population growth rate than a country with an aging population. On the other hand, an aging population may experience a decline in population growth, as the number of deaths exceeds the number of births.

Economic development

Economic development is a key factor that influences the population growth rate. A country with a higher level of economic development tends to have a lower population growth rate. This is due to several reasons: 

  • As the standard of living improves, people have access to better healthcare facilities and education, which leads to a reduction in mortality and fertility rates. 
  • As women become more educated and have access to job opportunities, they tend to have fewer children. 
  • As people become more affluent, they are more likely to invest in family planning, which helps control the size of their families.

Birth and Death Rates of Countries

High Birth Rate Countries: Examples of countries with high birth rates include Niger (7.6 children per woman), Chad (6.6 children per woman), Mali (6.5 children per woman), and Somalia (6.3 children per woman).

Low Birth Rate Countries: Examples of countries with low birth rates include Taiwan (1.1 children per woman), South Korea (1.2 children per woman), Hong Kong (1.2 children per woman), and Macau (1.2 children per woman).

High Death Rate Countries: Examples of countries with high death rates include Sierra Leone (20.3 deaths per 1000 population), Angola (15.9 deaths per 1000 population), Mozambique (15.6 deaths per 1000 population), and Lesotho (15.2 deaths per 1000 population).

Low Death Rate Countries: Examples of countries with low death rates include Japan (9.2 deaths per 1,000 people), Iceland (9.0 deaths per 1,000 people), and Cyprus (8.4 deaths per 1,000 people).

Exploring the Factors Behind Rapid Population Growth: An In-Depth Analysis

Rapid population growth is a phenomenon that has been observed in many parts of the world in recent decades. The increase in population has been driven by a number of factors, including:

  1. Reduction in Infectious Diseases and Improved Sanitation: Improved sanitation and access to clean water have led to a reduction in the spread of infectious diseases, further reducing mortality rates. With fewer people dying from infectious diseases, the population has continued to grow.
  2. Increased Food Availability through Agricultural Productivity: The use of modern farming techniques and technology has led to an increase in agricultural productivity, providing more food for a growing population. This has also led to a reduction in famine, further reducing mortality rates.
  3. Technology and Industrialization Improving Living Standards: Advances in technology and increased industrialization have led to improvements in living standards, including better housing, education, and access to clean water and sanitation. This has led to more people surviving adulthood and reproducing, further contributing to population growth.
  4. Fertility Rate Differences Between Developed and Developing Countries: Fertility rates have declined in developed countries due to access to family planning resources and changing cultural norms. However, fertility rates remain high in developing countries, leading to population growth in these countries.
  5. Urbanization and Migration: Urbanization and migration from rural to urban areas have led to an increase in population in urban areas. This is due to the pull of economic opportunities and better living conditions in urban areas.

FAQs on Population

Question 1: What are the main factors driving population growth?


The main forces propelling population growth are a reduction in mortality rates and an increase in fertility rates. Advancements in medicine and better living conditions have led to fewer deaths, and greater access to education and reproductive healthcare has resulted in more births.

Question 2: What are the implications of population growth for the planet and its inhabitants?


Population growth has significant implications for the planet, including increased demand for resources such as food and water, as well as increased pressure on the environment. It can also lead to overcrowding, increased pollution, and pressure on infrastructure and housing.

Question 3: How does population growth affect resources and the environment?


Population growth puts pressure on resources and the environment, as the demand for food, water, and energy increases. This can lead to the overuse of resources, deforestation, and other environmental problems.

Like Article
Suggest improvement
Share your thoughts in the comments

Similar Reads