The Smallest Harappan Site
Allahdino is the smallest site of the Harappan Civilization (also known as the Indus Valley civilization) while Rakhigarhi (Hisar district, Haryana) was declared the largest site of the Harappan civilization in 2014 (an earlier one was Mohenjo-Daro).
Harappan Civilization or Indus Valley Civilizations:
- It is one of the world’s earliest civilizations.
- It was unknown until the early part of the 20th century when the great settlements at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro were excavated and their antiquity recognized.
- It was a Bronze Age civilization in the northwestern regions of South Asia, lasting from 3300 BC to 1300 BC (mature form from 2600 BC to 1900 BC).
- Indus Valley Civilization was the largest among the four civilizations of the world (Mesopotamia, Egypt, and China).
- Since the first settlement was discovered along the banks of the river Indus, the archaeologists named the civilization as Indus Valley Civilization. But on the contrary only around 100 sites have been found in the Indus Valley, while over 500 sites are found along the Ghaggar-Hakra River.
- Important innovations of this civilization include standardized weights and measures, seal carving, and metallurgy with copper, bronze, lead, and tin. Little is understood about the Indus script, and as a result, little is known about the Indus River Valley Civilization’s institutions and systems of governance.
- The Indus Valley Civilization was spread over an area of 1,260,000 sq. km in modern India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan.
- 1056 Indus Valley Civilization cities and settlements have been found, of which 96 have been excavated.
Location of Allahdino:
- Allahdino is a small village located 40 km east of Karachi, Pakistan.
- Allahdino is spread over an area of about 1.4 hectares.
- It was established in the coastal area of Pakistan.
- The area was abandoned by 2000 B.C.
Excavations of Allahdino:
- Upon excavations of this site, a number of mud-brick houses built on mud platforms were found.
- There were also some houses that were built on stone platforms which suggests that some of the residents were well off.
- All the wells which were found on this site had almost the same small diameters between 60 cm to 90 cm.
Artifacts/Antiquity found in Allahdino:
- Till today about 250,000 vessels and shreds were collected and tabulated from this site.
- Seals, Copper objects, terracotta jars(small), and triangular terracotta cakes with a lot of gold, silver, bronze, and other ornaments were found.
- Indication of highly skilled workers settled in the region is given by the discovery of a belt containing 36 carnelian beads.
Significance/Importance of Allahdino:
- The layout of the settlements and buildings suggests that the role of Allahdino was administrative in nature.
- Allahdino is also thought to have been associated with textile manufacturing.
- A large number of wells suggest that Allahdino would have been used to irrigate nearby fields.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs):
Q.1. Which is the largest site of the Harappan civilization?
Ans. Rakhigarhi (Hisar district, Haryana) is the largest site of the Harappan civilization.
Q.2. Where is the smallest site of the Harappan civilization located?
Ans. The smallest site of the Harappan civilization is located in Karachi, Pakistan.
Q.3. Which of the following animals was not represented in seals and terracotta art of Harappan Sculpture?
Ans. The cow was not represented in seals and terracotta art of Harappan Sculpture.
Q.4. Who discovered the Harappa site of the Indus Valley Civilization?
Ans. Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni(1920-21) discovered the Harappa site of the Indus Valley Civilization.
Q.5. Who discovered the smallest site of the Indus Valley Civilization?
Ans. W.A. Fairservis discovered the Allahdino, the smallest site of the Indus Valley Civilization.
Q.6. What are the major archaeological sites of the Indus Valley Civilization?
Ans. Rakhigarhi, Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro, Banawali, Kalibangan and Dholavira are some of the major archaeological sites of the Indus Valley Civilization.