A new era opens in the history of technology to serve the century of speed, in which new digital age communication is expected to experience a high data rate that is unimaginable to achieve by existing communication networks. According to statistics, by 2024, 5G networks will cover 40% of the world population and handles 25% of all mobile traffic data.
This article takes you through the following sections:
- History Of Wireless Technology
- Overview Of 5G
- WISDOM (Wireless Innovative System for Dynamically Operating Mega Communication)
- GIMCV (Global Information Multimedia Communication)
- Requirements Of 5G
- Cyber Security Challenges
The first wireless transmission; it’s nothing but the transmission of Morse codes using radio waves. But the turning point in wireless communication is the invention of the handheld device that can communicate wirelessly. This invention led to the evolution of technology. Let’s look into the mobile wireless technology generation:
- 1G — First Generation Mobile Communication System.
- 2G — Second Generation Communication System.
- 3G — Third Generation Communication System.
- 4G — Fourth Generation Communication System.
- 5G — Fifth Generation Communication System.
1G — First Generation Mobile Communication System
The first generation communication system (1G) uses an analog system, which is put into operation in Japan by Nippon Telephone and Telegraph, during the year 1978. This analog system uses a frequency range between 800MHz and 900 MHz, and a bandwidth of 10 MHz. 1G system provides voice-only service, and its access technique is Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA). But the inevitable disadvantages of the 1G system are:
- Multiplexed traffic
- Inability to operate among different countries
- Less security
2G — Second Generation Communication System
The second-generation communication system is a digital cellular system that can be defined as a standard global system for mobile communication (GSM). Digital system communication is one of the key features of the 2G system; it allows the spectrum to be used much more efficiently and also reduce the bandwidth for voice communication. One of the disadvantages is that it can only handle a maximum of 9.6 kbps, which is not good for internet related services.
Then 2.5 G and 2.7G were introduced. The 2.5G system uses General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) Standard and it supports an array of features — Wireless Application Protocol, Multimedia Message Service, Short Message Service, Mobile Games, and so on. Whereas 2.7G uses EDGE — Enhanced Data Rate for GSM Evolution; it provides a higher data rate compared to 2.5 G.
3G — Third Generation Communication System
The third generation communication system (3G) provides high-speed internet access, 384 kbps in burst mode. The services provided by 3G are video calls, broadband wireless data, mobile television, GPS, video broadcast service, and so on. However, some disadvantages of the 3G system are:
- Need higher bandwidth to support a higher data rate
- Costly infrastructure
- Spectrum license is expensive
4G — Fourth Generation Communication System
The fourth-generation communication system provides high-speed internet access of 100 Mbps and hence, it can provide quality video and audio streaming. Two main standards of 4G are:
- Worldwide Interoperability for microwave
- WiMax and LongTerm Evolution (LTE)
Some technical challenges respect to the 4G system are:
- High data rates — OFDM, Distortion, MC-CDMA
- Turbo, LDPC
- MIMO devices
- Cognitive Radio
- Smart antenna system
Overview Of 5G
5G is termed as the fifth generation technology standard that ensures faster communication and ubiquitous connectivity. The 5th generation communication network is based on WISDOM (Wireless Innovative System for Dynamically Operating Mega Communication) that provides enhanced capabilities such as enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communication (URLLC), and massive machine-type communication (MMTC). Let’s discuss this in detail.
Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB)
Enhanced Mobile brand provides faster data transfer across a wide coverage area. Hence, eMBB can ensure a higher user experience for data-rich applications and compelling digital media. It provides 5G users with fluid and flexible technology-dependent services. Some of them are:
- Ultra-High Display.
- 360-degree video streaming.
- Immersive VR and AR applications.
- High-end features in wearable mobile devices.
- Mobile Cloud.
- Smart Navigation.
- Real-time interactive games, and so on.
From the above features, it is clear, eMBB is not just for providing multimedia content, but it also provides a higher user experience for cloud-based applications as well; it defines new standards for smart office applications such as virtual meetings with 360-degree video, real-time translation, and so on.
Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communication (URLLC)
URLLC ensures ultra-reliable and low latency communication, which can be used for mission-critical applications — remote surgery, remote patient diagnosis, intelligent transportation system, smart grids, and so on. Not only it provides uninterrupted and robust data exchange, but it also ensures end-to-end security and reliability.
It is a challenging task for the 5G network to achieve URLLC; 5G requires modifications in the existing telecom infrastructure since the QoS requirement (air interface latency and system reliability) for URLLC varies among applications. Let’s consider the scenario of air interface latency, it depends on the channel quality and dedicated bandwidth that varies based on the applications. On the other side, achieving reliability is also a challenging task, since different mobile applications rely on different retransmission methods.
Massive Machine Type Communication (MMTC)
Massive Machine Type Communication (MMTC) is a communication paradigm where machine type devices send information to other machines with less or zero human interventions. This M2M data sharing can be characterized as automation data generation, actuation among intelligent machines, and so on. And, it defines a new standard for a diverse set of connected devices that encompass the Internet Of Things (IoT).
MMTC is different from existing communication models since it contains a set of power-constrained devices and also exhibits different traffic patterns. The various device types and different traffic patterns can help to achieve diverse requirements such as industry 4.0, IoT, connected cars, more effective security surveillance, POS, and so on.
In short, eMBB offers a wide coverage area; URLLC ensures ultra-reliable and low latency communication, and MMTC offers efficient and secure wireless connectivity and networking for billions of M2M devices. These applications all together define 5G.
WISDOM (Wireless Innovative System for Dynamically Operating Mega Communication)
WISDOM is an important concept that explains 5G. In simple terms, we can define a 5G system as a combination of 4G and WISDOM technology. WISDOM can offer frequencies up to Terahertz and data rate up to Tera bps. Here, it accomplishes Tera bps by using millimeter waves. Let’s have a look at the following section.
- WISDOM Objectives
- Five Independent Vectors
- Pillars of WISDOM
- WISDOM Architecture
- WISDOM Benefits
- WISDOM Challenges
The main objective of WISDOM is to provide a wireless infrastructure for human-centric mega communication, which helps to interconnect different sectors by bridging their communication gap with higher capacity and performance. This can be made possible by:
- Designing an air interface that provides 3 to 5 times more channel efficiency.
- Creating novel cross-layer and cross-network domain optimization.
- Developing a converged WISDOM system.
- Utilizing smaller size cells and virtual cells with optimized dynamic spectrum management.
Five Independent Vectors
The five independent vectors are shown in the below figure:
There are five independent vectors that contribute to the concept of WISDOM. They are-
It can meet the present generation demands by ensuring quick data transfer, single IP for worldwide connectivity, distant business correspondence, and so on.
Pillars Of WISDOM
The main goal of WISDOM is to interconnect different sectors by bridging their communication gap with higher capacity and performance. It also aims at providing a rich digital experience for the end-users. The WISDOM pillars play a significant role to meet this demand.
The top design of WISDOM is designed based on 3 founding pillars. They are as follows:
1. Information-theoretic performance/ capacity estimation: Here, information from different types of network paradigms are considered to determine the efficiency and capacity of the design process.
2. End-to-End performance optimization: This performance optimization offers high reliable communication links, which is much efficient than one based on classical layered design. To achieve this optimization, it uses a novel transport protocol, which is compatible with the wired part (optical fiber) of the network.
3. Cognitive networking principles: These principles make it possible to consider a wide range of usage scenarios irrespective of their complexity. It also plays a significant role in the minimization of the spectrum and energy needs. The self-organizing/self-healing wireless access networks in the converged WISDOM architecture is based on cognitive networking principles.
WISDOM Architecture has three main components.
- Person to Machine (P2M): The P2M component in WISDOM architecture makes it possible for humans to interact and connect with machines in unbelievable ways. It can overcome today’s challenges — such as bandwidth demand, heterogeneity and integration of new systems, and different network paradigms —, and can offer a seamless person to machine communication experience. It makes use of mm-wave and Sub-THz point-to-point MIMO and offers a low bitrate up to 1 Tbit/s. Some applications of P2M components are IoT, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), MANET, and more.
- Short-range (WPAN & WLAN): WISDOM short-range component has multiple directional antennas that transmit to the same terminal. This technique helps to create spatial diversity and attenuate Line of Sight (LoS) blocking. It facilitates both Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN) and Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN). This component uses communication methodologies such as mm-wave, Multi-Radio, Multihop, Indoor, and Wireless Mesh Networks and offers sustainable 10 Gbit/s and Bursty 1 Terabit/sec links. Some applications are smart houses, child monitoring, Immersive augmented reality and gaming, smart helmets, smart cars, Green Information Communication Technology (GICT), personalized medicines, smart robotics, tactile internet, RFID, and more.
- Cellular and WMAN range: This component offers the next-generation cellular networks that consist of a network of radio cells. It helps to design a converged architecture and network solution that facilitates human-centric mega communications over the network of the future. Through this component, WISDOM focuses on interfacing network nodes that use different technology, with the support of some novel solutions. It considers a new communication system based on the transmission, signaling, and modulation techniques. It makes use of MIMO and Virtual MIMO links in the mm-wave bands and different types of beamforming for generating highly directional links at high frequencies. This WISDOM component offers sustainable symmetric 300 Mbps links (1 Gbit/s peak) and full mobility.
A wide array of technology can benefit from WISDOM. They are as follows:
- Multimedia Communication: Wisdom technology focuses on the areas of Machine-to-Machine (M2M) and Peer-to-Peer(P2P), and thereby can ensure efficiency for home networking, smart cities, and techno-social systems.
- Cognitive Communications: Cognitive communication includes a wide array of services such as educational, office, emergency, commercial, intelligent transportation system, and so on.
- Personalized Medicine: This area includes bioinformatics, body sensors, multi-sensor networks, data protection, and so on.
- Positioning and Localization: Positioning and Localization include — navigation systems, ubiquitous and cooperative localization, geo-tagging, robotics, and so on.
- Future Networks: WISDOM can standardize the future network process such as physical security, cooperative communication, IoT, and so on.
- Dynamically operating mega communication: Another advantage of WISDOM is its ability to switch the communication network dynamically, based on the change in geolocation. Let’s point to its key features:
- Promising frequency spectrum.
- Novel enabling technologies.
- Reduced OPEX cost.
- Less coverage and electricity cost.
- Scalable and Flexible technology options.
WISDOM provides a faster data rate across a wide coverage area; it ensures this coverage by forming a Global Information Multimedia Communication (GIMCV).
Let’s look into the challenges faced by WISDOM.
1. Achieving higher data rates (1 Tera bps) in short-range distances
Some main challenges in achieving T bit/s communication in short-range distances are:
- Challenges in utilizing Extra High-Frequency band for a higher data rate. These include limited technology support, absence of extra high-frequency channel characterization, limitations in considering CMOS components in transmission techniques, and the passband of the digital device doesn’t permit the usage of the channel that has a bandwidth higher than 2 GHz.
- Requires novel PHY techniques and advanced cognitive network architecture to facilitate multiple direction antennas that transmit to the same terminal
2. Outdoor mobile communications with full mobility
To achieve outdoor mobile communication with full mobility (300 Mbps to an individual user with full mobility)
- A new communication system needs to be considered based on transmission, signaling, and modulation techniques.
- It requires MIMO, Virtual MIMO, and various types of beam-forming for setting up highly directional links.
- Use of small cells and virtual cells.
3. Converged Architecture
Designing a converged architecture enables ubiquitous terabit wireless connectivity for human-centric mega communication. Some challenges are:
- Proposing a novel solution that addresses the overall network architecture and the interconnection of the network nodes that use different technology.
- To operate in a variety of spectrum allocation and interference conditions.
- To provide seamless interconnection between the wireline and wireless parts of the converged architecture.
- Design of the network algorithms and protocols at the local network and global internetworking levels.
GIMCV (Global Information Multimedia Communication)
WISDOM provides a wide coverage area by forming a Global Information Multimedia Communication. It ranges from cities to states, then to countries and the world. Before getting into GIMCV, let’s look into cellular networks.
A cellular network consists of cells, and each cell represents a geographical area. Here, a cell site or base transceiver station provides network coverage for each cell. A cell can use multiple frequencies, range from f1 to f6, under the condition that the adjacent cells should not use the same frequency (co-channel interference). If we look at the cellular network hierarchy, it consists of macrocells (range up to 35 km), microcells (up to 2kms), picocells (range up to 200 meters), and femtocells (10 meters).
Global Information Multimedia Communication (GIMCV) comprises national and international zones, represented as macrocells. Each macrocell further divides into microcells (city network), and the microcells consist of picocells (home network). This model can provide an efficient structure for grouping devices in close vicinity.
Requirements Of 5G
To achieve the data rate of 1 Tbit/s, WISDOM based 5G need certain requirements. They are as follows:
- Single ID mobile terminal to achieve seamless network connectivity
- Requires a distributed antenna system (DAS) and multi-input and massive multi-output (MIMO) antennas
- Utilization of D2D in WISDOM based 5G
- Require frequency bands that are not used for existing cellular communication
- Visible light communication
- Cognitive radio technology
Cyber Security Challenges
Let’s discuss some cybersecurity challenges
- Unified technology avoids the need for network borders. Hence, maintaining operational regulations are more challenging.
- The unified network lets the user access information directly from CPSs. This direct access can result in a tremendous increase in the CPSs network attack.
- Unification makes it difficult to differentiate legal and illegal activities
- Using M2M communication, a machine can exploit another machine to carry out illegal activities. No governing law exists today to tackle such a situation.
- Malicious devices can attack nodes while collaborating for functions such as spectrum sharing, spectrum sensing, spectrum management, and spectrum mobility.
5G brings another revolution by enabling 5G intelligent core, ubiquitous connectivity, and ubiquitous networking that can meet the demand of the century of speed. But, on the other side, we are still unclear about the bioeffects of 5G electromagnetic radiation.