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The Age of Revolutions: 1830-1848

Last Updated : 17 Oct, 2023
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The Age of Revolution and Romantic Imagination started in the late 18th century and ended in the mid-19th century (1798-1837). This period saw the development of beauty and the terror of science. It was mostly in America and Europe. There was a drastic rise in two philosophies in Europe, one was liberalism and the other conservatism. The educated liberals sought to overthrow the monarchy and bring the people’s government. Europe, therefore, saw a series of revolutions in Italy, Germany, Poland, Turkey, and Ireland.


Age of Revolutions: 1830-1848

The Age of Revolutions: 1830-1848

Although it was only during the period of traditionalism that revolutionary conditioning gradually began to arrive, the real note-good upheaval against it subsided in July 1830 in France. The Bourbon lords, who had been restored to authority during the post-1815 conservative reaction, were now overthrown by liberal revolutionaries, who inaugurated an indigenous monarchy with Louis Philippe. “When France sneezes, Metternich remarked formerly, ‘the rest of Europe gets cold. One event that aroused nationalist passion among educated elites across Europe was the Greek War of Independence.

  • When France sneezes’, Metternich once remarked, ‘the rest of Europe is feeling cold’.
  • One event that mustered nationalist sentiments among educated elites across Europe was the Greek War of Independence.
  • Greece has been part of the Ottoman Empire since the fifteenth century.
  • Greeks in exile and also numerous Western Europeans who sympathized with ancient Greek culture.
  • The expansion of nationalism didn’t come about exclusively through wars and territorial expansions.
  • National sentiments were kept alive through music and languages.
  • July Revolution-Belgium breaking down from the United area of the Netherlands.
  • Treaty of Constantinople-1832-Greece-Independent Nation.
The Age of Revolutions

The Age of Revolutions 1830-1848

1830: Second French Revolution

The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution, was the second French Revolution after 1789. This Revolution led to the overthrow of King Charles X, French Bourbon monarch, and the ascent of his cousin Louis Philippe, Duke of Orleans.

July Revolution marked a shift from a constitutional monarchy, under the restored House of Bourbon to another, the July Monarchy. Secondly, there was the replacement of the principle of hereditary rights by popular sovereignty. Supporters of Bourbons were called Legitimists, and supporters of Louis Philippe were Orleanists.

1821 to 1832: Greek War of Independence

The Greek War of Independence, also commonly known as the Greek Revolution, was a successful war waged by the Greeks to win independence of Greece from the Ottoman Empire. The struggle for revolutionary nationalism in Europe in 1821, sparked a struggle for independence amongst the Greeks. Support was sought from west Europeans and greeks living in exile, who had sympathies for ancient greek culture. 

Poets and artists lauded Greece as the cradle of European civilization and mobilized public opinion against the Muslim empire. Finally, the Treaty of Constantinople recognized Greece as an independent nation.

The Romantic Imagination and National Feeling

Nationalism did not develop through war and territorial expansion. Culture played an important role in forming the idea of the nation through art, poetry, stories, and music and helped to express and shape the feelings of nationalism.

Romantic Imagination and National Feeling

Romantic Imagination and National Feeling

  • An artistic movement in Europe of the 18th and 19th centuries that used art, poetry, music, and stories to transmit the spirit of nationalism.
  • The people who contributed to this are known as Romantic artists.
  • Romantic artists have criticized the glorification of logic and knowledge.
  • They focused on emotion, instinct, and the mysterious heartbeat.
  • Their trouble was to create a sense of a collaborative heritage participating in a common artistic history as the basis of a nation.
  • The emphasis on conversational language and the collection of the original myth was used to recapture an ancient public sentiment and to take an ultramodern nationalist massage to a larger adherent, who were largely illiterate.
  • Languages also played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments.
  • The Polish language was forced out of schools due to Russia’s dominance, but Poland began to use the language as a weapon of national resistance.
  • Polish was used for church assembly and all religious instructions.
  • The exploitation of the Polish came to be seen as a symbol of the struggle against Russian domination.
The revolution of liberals

The Revolution of the Liberals 1848

Europe in the 1830s was in great economic difficulty because of the following arguments:

  • The huge expansion in per capita population in Europe.
  • There were more promotions of appointments than employment, shifting from rural areas to metropolitan areas to live in overcrowded slums.
  • Smaller directors in municipalities faced stiff competition from industrial England over inexpensive machine-made items.
  • Peasants were burdened with feudal pretense, the hard-won power of quality.
  • The advancement of victuals charges.
  • Generations of poor harvests were directed to far-reaching poverty in the city and country.

1848: Third French Revolution

The French Revolution of 1848, also called as February Revolution, was a brief period of unrest in France in February 1848, that led to the collapse of the July Monarchy and the foundation of the Second French Republic. It sparked the revolutions of 1848.

There was unrest in Paris in 1848, due to food shortages and widespread unemployment. As a result, Louis Philippe was forced to flee. The National Assembly declared France a Republic and granted suffrage to all adult males above 21 and guaranteed the Right to Work.

1848: The Revolution of the Liberals

With the revolt of the poor, a revolution started under the leadership of the educated middle class. In parts of Europe where independent nation-states did not exist. As in Germany, Italy, and Poland, the Austro-Hungarian Empire men and women of the liberal middle class combined their demands:

  • Constitutionalism
  • National Unification.
  • Freedom of the press and freedom of political clubs.

Changes were made:

  1. Slavery and bonded labor were abolished.
  2. Granted autonomy to Hungary.

FAQs on The Age of Revolution 1830-1848

Why Romantic Age is called the “Age of Revolution”?

The Romantic Age is often referred to as “Age of Revolutions” because of the major changes that were taking place during late 17th and 18th century in political, industrial and literary sphere.

Write down the Age of Revolution of 1830.

Revolutionary wave took place in 1830 in Europe, which included two “romantic nationalist” revolutions, Belgian Revolution in United Kingdom of Netherlands and July Revolution in France. Also revolutions were present in Congress Poland, Italian states, Portugal and Switzerland.

What is an important movement in the “Age of Revolution”?

The Age of Revolutions includes American Revolution, French Revolution, Irish Rebellion of 1798, Haitian Revolution, revolts of slaves in Latin America and wave of revolutions in Europe.

Who wrote “The Age of Revolution 1789 to 1848”?

Eric Hobsbawm was the author of the book. It was about the revolutions that took place during that time and how it influenced the political, war, social and cultural, economic and technological fields.

How were liberty and equality for women to be defined?

Louise OttoPeter describes it as, “men are trying to get the freedom and freedom of all”. She stated that freedom should be unequally divided between men and women. Karl Welker said “Women are weak, dependent, shy and needs human protection and do household chores”.

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