The Age of Revolutions: 1830-1848
Nationalism is a political philosophy that includes public tenure, i.e. a strong identification of a group of objects with a portrayed political personality in a nation. In the ‘modernist’ repetition of the nation, it is nationalism that creates national equality.
At first, this nationalism was a force for the good as it led to further political conscience and social reform. Later, nationalism was highly influential and driven because of ethnic preference and the philosophy of imperialism.
The Making Of Nationalism In Europe
In the beginning, there were no individual nation-states, and Eastern and Central Europe were under absolute monarchies within the regions in which individual peoples lived. They did not see themselves as participating in collaborative equality or a common culture. For example, the Habsburg Empire, which ruled Austria-Hungary, consisted of people from different ethnic groups. This included the Alpine regions Tyrol, Austria, and the Sudetenland as well as Bohemia, where the quality was generally German amidst these damaging contingencies, creating ambiguity about the emergence of nationalism and how it successively came into existence.
This authoritarianism did not survive long, as secret societies began to emerge in many European states to train revolutionaries and spread their ideas. The revolutionaries, who embraced equality and liberty, saw nationalism as a suitable light-bearer.
A similar commodity was the Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Mazzini. Born in Genoa in 1807, he was a member of the Carbonari secret society. At the age of 24, he was transferred into exile in 1831 for trying for a revolution in Liguria. He later invented two more underground societies, the first, Young Italy in Marseille, and Young Europe in Bern, whose members were equally willing young men from Poland, France, Italy, and the German states.
1830 July Revolution in France 1831 Giuseppe Mazzini – Establishment of Young Italy, an armed rebellion against Russian rule 1832 Treaty of Constantinople 1834 Zollverein found the end of tariff barriers in Prussia. 1848 Revolution of liberals + Paris Revolt
The Age of Revolutions: 1830-1848
Although it was only during the period of traditionalism that revolutionary conditioning gradually began to arrive, the real note-good upheaval against it subsided in July 1830 in France. The Bourbon lords, who had been restored to authority during the post-1815 conservative reaction, were now overthrown by liberal revolutionaries, who inaugurated an indigenous monarchy with Louis Philippe. “When France sneezes, Metternich remarked formerly, ‘the rest of Europe gets cold. One event that aroused nationalist passion among educated elites across Europe was the Greek War of Independence.
- When France sneezes’, Metternich once remarked, ‘the rest of Europe is feeling cold’.
- One event that mustered nationalist sentiments among educated elites across Europe was the Greek War of Independence.
- Greece has been part of the Ottoman Empire since the fifteenth century.
- Greeks in exile and also numerous Western Europeans who sympathized with ancient Greek culture.
- The expansion of nationalism didn’t come about exclusively through wars and territorial expansions.
- National sentiments were kept alive through music and languages.
- July Revolution-Belgium breaking down from the United area of the Netherlands.
- Treaty of Constantinople-1832-Greece-Independent Nation.
The Romantic imagination and National feelings
Nationalism did not develop through war and territorial expansion. Culture played an important role in forming the idea of the nation through art, poetry, stories, and music and helped to express and shape the feelings of nationalism.
- An artistic movement in Europe of the 18th and 19th centuries that used art, poetry, music, and stories to transmit the spirit of nationalism.
- The people who contributed to this are known as Romantic artists.
- Romantic artists have criticized the glorification of logic and knowledge.
- They focused on emotion, instinct, and the mysterious heartbeat.
- Their trouble was to create a sense of a collaborative heritage participating in a common artistic history as the basis of a nation.
- The emphasis on conversational language and the collection of the original myth was used to recapture an ancient public sentiment and to take ultramodern nationalist massage to a larger adherent, who were largely illiterate.
- Languages also played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments.
- The Polish language was forced out of schools due to Russia’s dominance, but Poland began to use the language as a weapon of national resistance.
- Polish was used for church assembly and all religious instructions.
- The exploitation of the Polish came to be seen as a symbol of the struggle against Russian domination.
Hunger, Hardship, and Popular Revolt:
Europe in the 1830s was in great economic difficulty because of the following arguments:
- The huge expansion in per capita population in Europe.
- There were more promotions of appointments than employment, shifting from rural areas to metropolitan areas to live in overcrowded slums.
- Smaller directors in municipalities faced stiff competition from industrial England over inexpensive machine-made items.
- Peasants burdened with feudal pretence, the hard-won power of quality.
- The advancement of victuals charges.
- Generations of poor harvests were directed to far-reaching poverty in the city and country.
Revolution of the liberals – 1848
With the revolt of the poor, a revolution started under the leadership of the educated middle class.
In parts of Europe where independent nation-states did not exist. As in Germany, Italy, Poland, the Austro-Hungarian Empire men and women of the liberal middle class combined their demands:
- National Unification.
- Freedom of press and freedom of political clubs.
Changes were made-
- Slavery and bonded labour were abolished.
- Granted autonomy to Hungary.
Making of Germany and Italy
- Revolution of Germans:
- A large number of middle-class people in German territory come together in Frankfurt and all decide to vote for the German National Assembly.
- On 18 May 1848, 831 elected representatives marched in a festive procession to take their places in the Frankfurt Parliament, held at St. Paul’s Church.
- Revolution by Germans:
- The National Assembly of middle-class Germans drafts a constitution.
- Parliament was dominated by the middle class, who ignored the demands of the poor people. So the poor did not support his revolution.
- King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia rejected it.
- He joined other monarchies and artists to oppose the elected assembly.
- Women were not given the right to vote despite the establishment of their political organizations, newspaper meetings.
- Women were only allowed as observers to stand in the visitors’ gallery.
- Even among liberals, there was still no gender equality.
- In the 19th Century, Italy was divided into 7 states. – Only 1 state (Sardinia Piedmont) was under the control of Italy.
- There were many regional languages. Chief Minister Cavour led the movement for the unification of Italy.
- A large number of people joined the movement under Garibaldi’s rule.
- Local farmers also supported. – He overthrew Spanish rule.
- In 1861 – Victor Emmanuel II is proclaimed Emperor of Italy.
Question 1: Why were the conservatives uniting Italy?
A unified Italy offered them the possibility of economic growth and political dominance.
Question 2: What idea did the French armies take abroad through revolutionary wars?
French armies carried the idea of nationalism to foreign countries through the Revolutionary Wars.
Question 3: Which revolution is called the first manifestation of ‘Nationalism’?
French Revolution is called the first manifestation of ‘Nationalism’.
Question 4: What is the Civil Code of 1804 also known as?
The Napoleonic Code was also known as the Civil Code of 1804.
Question 5: Which region was the most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871?
Balkan States was the most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871.
Question 6: What were the principles of the French Revolution?
Liberty, Equality and Fraternity were the principles of the French Revolution.