Given a sorted array** arr[], **and a set **Q** having **M** queries, where each query has values** X** and **Y**, the task is to find the sum of all integers less than **X** and greater than **Y** present in the array.**Note:** X and Y may or may not be present in the array.

**Examples:**

Input:arr[] = [3 5 8 12 15], Q = {{5, 12}, {4, 8}}Output:

18

30Explanation:

For query 1, X = 5 and Y = 12. Sum = 3( < 5) + 15( > 12) = 18.

For query 2, X = 4 and Y = 8. Sum = 3( < 4) + 15 ( > 8) + 12 ( > 8) = 30.

Input:arr[] = [4 7 7 12 15], Q = {{3, 8}, {4, 8}}Output:

27

27Explanation:

For query 1, X = 3 and Y = 8. Sum = 12( > 8) + 15 ( > 8) = 27.

For query 2, Sum = 12 + 15 = 27.

**Approach:**

- Build a prefix sum array where
**prefix_sum[i]**denotes the sum of**arr[0] + arr[1] + … arr[i]**. - Find the last index
**i**which has a value less than**X**and extract the prefix sum up to the**i**index. The index can be obtained in^{th}*O(logN)*complexity by using**bisect_left()**or lower_bound() in Python and C++ respectively.. - Similarly, find the first index
**i**in the array with a value greater than Y and calculate the sum**prefix_sum[n-1] – prefix_sum[i-1]**. Inbuilt functions bisect() and upper_bound() in Python and C++ respectively, perform the required operation in*O(logN)*. - Sum of the two results calculated in the above two steps is the required answer. Keep repeating these steps for every query.

Below is the implementation of the above approach:

## Python3

`# Python code for the above program` `from` `bisect ` `import` `bisect, bisect_left` ` ` `def` `createPrefixSum(ar, n):` ` ` ` ` `# Initialize prefix sum ` ` ` `# array` ` ` `prefix_sum ` `=` `[` `0` `]` `*` `n` ` ` ` ` `# Initialize prefix_sum[0]` ` ` `# by ar[0]` ` ` `prefix_sum[` `0` `] ` `=` `ar[` `0` `]` ` ` ` ` `# Compute prefix sum for` ` ` `# all indices ` ` ` `for` `i ` `in` `range` `(` `1` `, n):` ` ` `prefix_sum[i] ` `=` `prefix_sum[i` `-` `1` `]` `+` `ar[i]` ` ` `return` `prefix_sum` ` ` `# Function to return sum of all` `# elements less than X` `def` `sumLessThanX(ar, x, prefix_xum):` ` ` ` ` `# Index of the last element ` ` ` `# which is less than x` ` ` `pos_x ` `=` `bisect_left(ar, x) ` `-` `1` ` ` ` ` ` ` `if` `pos_x >` `=` `0` `:` ` ` `return` `prefix_sum[pos_x]` ` ` `# If no element is less than x` ` ` `else` `:` ` ` `return` `0` ` ` `# Function to return sum of all` `# elements greater than Y` `def` `sumGreaterThanY(ar, y, prefix_sum):` ` ` ` ` `# Index of the first element ` ` ` `# which is greater than y` ` ` `pos_y ` `=` `bisect(ar, y)` ` ` `pos_y ` `-` `=` `1` ` ` ` ` `if` `pos_y < ` `len` `(ar)` `-` `1` `:` ` ` `return` `prefix_sum[` `-` `1` `]` `-` `prefix_sum[pos_y]` ` ` `# If no element is greater than y` ` ` `else` `:` ` ` `return` `0` ` ` ` ` `def` `solve(ar, x, y, prefix_sum):` ` ` `ltx ` `=` `sumLessThanX(ar, x, prefix_sum)` ` ` `gty ` `=` `sumGreaterThanY(ar, y, prefix_sum)` ` ` ` ` `# printing the final sum` ` ` `print` `(ltx ` `+` `gty) ` ` ` ` ` `def` `print_l(lb, ub):` ` ` `print` `(` `"sum of integers less than {}"` `.` `format` `(lb)` ` ` `+` `" and greater than {} is "` `.` `format` `(ub),` ` ` `end ` `=` `'')` ` ` ` ` `if` `__name__ ` `=` `=` `'__main__'` `:` ` ` ` ` `# example 1` ` ` `ar ` `=` `[` `3` `, ` `6` `, ` `6` `, ` `12` `, ` `15` `]` ` ` `n ` `=` `len` `(ar)` ` ` `prefix_sum ` `=` `createPrefixSum(ar, n)` ` ` ` ` `# for query 1` ` ` `q1x ` `=` `5` ` ` `q1y ` `=` `12` ` ` `print_l(q1x, q1y)` ` ` `solve(ar, q1x, q1y, prefix_sum)` ` ` ` ` `# for query 2` ` ` `q2x ` `=` `7` ` ` `q2y ` `=` `8` ` ` `print_l(q2x, q2y)` ` ` `solve(ar, q2x, q2y, prefix_sum)` |

**Output:**

sum of integers less than 5 and greater than 12 is 18 sum of integers less than 7 and greater than 8 is 42

**Time Complexity: **O(N + (M * logN))**Auxiliary Space complexity:** O(N)

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