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Subtraction Formulas

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  • Last Updated : 01 Sep, 2022
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Subtraction is a fundamental arithmetic operation. Subtraction is a mathematical operation that involves subtracting a part of one number from another. The process of subtracting one number from another is known as subtraction.

What is Subtraction?

Subtraction is the operation in which we reduce the value. It is the process of taking away in order to make the number smaller. It is denoted by the ‘-‘ operator. For example, 

We have 3 apples and we eat 2 apples. So there is only 1 apple left. Subtraction makes the number smaller. For example, 10 – 2 is 8. This means that we take away 2 parts from the 10 parts. When we perform subtraction there are some terms associated with it:

  • Minuend: It is the number from which another number is subtracted. It is that number which is reduced by the subtrahend In the above example 10 is the minuend.
  • Subtrahend: The number which is to be subtracted. Here 2 is the minuend.
  • Difference: It is the result after the subtraction of two numbers.

Minuend – Subtrahend = Difference

Different Methods of Subtraction 

  • Suppose we have two numbers a and b where a is larger than b. Then a – b is positive and is greater than Or equal to zero. For example, We have 9 and 8 and we have to subtract 8 from 9. So 9 – 8 = 1 which is positive.
  • In the second case is supposed we have two numbers x and y where x is less than y. The difference between x and y is always negative. For example: 6 – 8 = -2 which is a negative number. 

How to perform subtraction? 

For one-digit numbers, we perform simple subtraction. But for larger numbers like two-digit, three-digit, etc we split the numbers into respective digits using their place values. Then we perform subtraction for each digit. If the minuend is smaller than the subtrahend then we borrow 1 in the preceding place. 

Sample Questions

Question 1: If Ram’s mother gave him 99 rupees to buy stationary, out of which he used 60 rupees. Then calculate the amount he left with.


The total amount of money he has 99 rupees,

He spends 60 rupees.

Now, he left with (99-60) rupees = 39 rupees.

Question 2: Find the difference between 454 and 666.


The difference between 454 and 666 is given by,

454 – 666 

= – (666 – 454) 

= -212

Question 3: If there are 67 apples and a dozen of Apples are distributed among some children. How many apples are there? 


As we know 1 dozen = 12 units

So 12 apples have been distributed

Therefore the number of apples is 67 – 12 

= 55

Question 4: How much we should subtract from 1000 to get 90? 


Let x be the subtrahend, then

1000 – x = 90

Therefore x = 1000-90 

= 910

Question 5: Find the value of 4/2 – 3 -6.


According to BODMAS rule, 4/2 = 2


4/2 – 3 -6 = 2 – 3 – 6 

= -7

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