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Subsets having Sum between A and B
• Difficulty Level : Hard
• Last Updated : 29 Jul, 2020

Given a set of N integers. Find how many subsets of given array have sum between A and B(inclusive).

Constraints:
1 ≤ N ≤ 34,
-2 * 107 ≤ arri ≤ 2 * 107
-5 * 108 ≤ A, B ≤ 5 * 108

Examples:

```Input : S[] = { 1, -2, 3 }, A = -1, B = 2
Output : 5

Explanation:
1) 0 = 0 (the empty subset)
2) {1} = 1
3) {1, -2} = 1 + (-2) = -1
4) {-2, 3} = (-2) + 3 = 1
5) {1, -2, 3} = 1 + (-2) + 3 = 2

```

Method 1 (Brute Force): We can generate all subsets of the given numbers i.e. Power Set and find the number of subsets that would give a sum between A and B. But this will have 234 operations atmost, which is not very efficient. Hence, below is an efficient approach to solve this problem.
Method 2 (Meet In The Middle): This basically reduces time complexity from O(2N) to O(2N/2
We divide the set into two sets [0…N/2] and [(N/2 + 1)…(N-1)] and generate all subsets sums individually for the two sets which will be 2 * 217 operations. Now, what we can do is to find the combinations of these sets that would give the desired sum. This again can be done in an efficient way, sort one of the summed up set and binary search the values that will yield the sum for the particular value of the other set. Sort the second set and for each element in the first set, search for the lower bound of A – S2[i] (let say ‘low’) and upper bound of B – S2[i]
(let say ‘high’). Subtract (high – low) to get the desired answer.

For e.g S = { 1, 2, -1, 0 }, A = 1, B = -1.
After dividing S into two sets, S1 = { 1, 2 } and S2 = { -1, 0 }.
Power set of S1 = { {0}, {1}, {2}, {1, 2} } and Power set of S2 = { {0}, {-1}, {0}, {-1, 0} }
Subset Sum of S1 = { 0, 1, 2, 3 } and Subset Sum of S2 = { 0, -1, 0, -1 }
Now sort the S2 { -1, -1, 0, 0 } and for every value in S1, we binary search values that would yield the desired sum. For 0 we search for (-1) – 0 = -1 for lower bound and 1 – 0 = 1 for upper bound in S2, for 1 we search for (-1) – 1 = -2 and 1 – 1 = 0 in S2 and so on.

## C++

 `// C++ program to find the Number of Subsets that ``// have sum between A and B``#include ``using` `namespace` `std;`` ` `/* Function to Generate all subsets of a set``   ``start --> Starting Index of the Set for the ``             ``first/second half Set``   ``setSize --> Number of element in half Set``   ``S --> Original Complete Set``   ``res --> Store the subsets sums */``void` `generateSubsets(``int` `start, ``int` `setSize, ``int` `S[],``                                    ``vector<``int``>& res)``{``    ``// setSize of power set of a set with setSize``    ``// N is (2^n - 1)``    ``unsigned ``int` `pow_setSize = ``pow``(2, setSize);`` ` `    ``// Store the sum of particular subset of set``    ``int` `sum;`` ` `    ``// Run from counter 000..0 to 111..1``    ``for` `(``int` `counter = 0; counter < pow_setSize; counter++) {`` ` `        ``// set the sum initially to zero``        ``sum = 0;`` ` `        ``for` `(``int` `j = 0; j < setSize; j++) {`` ` `            ``// Check if jth bit in the counter is set``            ``// If set then pront jth element from set``            ``if` `(counter & (1 << j))``                ``sum += S[j + start];``        ``}`` ` `        ``// Store the sum in a vector``        ``res.push_back(sum);``    ``}``}`` ` `int` `numberOfSubsets(``int` `S[], ``int` `N, ``int` `A, ``int` `B)``{``    ``// Vectors to store the subsets sums``    ``// of two half sets individually``    ``vector<``int``> S1, S2;`` ` `    ``// Generate subset sums for the first half set``    ``generateSubsets(0, N / 2, S, S1);`` ` `    ``// Generate subset sums for the second half set``    ``if` `(N % 2 != 0)``        ``generateSubsets(N / 2, N / 2 + 1, S, S2);``    ``else``        ``generateSubsets(N / 2, N / 2, S, S2);`` ` `    ``// Sort the second half set``    ``sort(S2.begin(), S2.end());`` ` `    ``// Vector Iterator for S1 and S2;``    ``vector<``int``>::iterator low, high;`` ` `    ``// number of required subsets with desired Sum``    ``int` `ans = 0;`` ` `    ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i < S1.size(); i++) {`` ` `        ``// search for lower bound``        ``low = lower_bound(S2.begin(), S2.end(), A - S1[i]);`` ` `        ``// search for upper bound``        ``high = upper_bound(S2.begin(), S2.end(), B - S1[i]);`` ` `        ``// Add up to get the desired answer``        ``ans += (high - low);``    ``}``    ``return` `ans;``}`` ` `// Driver Program to test above functions``int` `main()``{``    ``int` `S[] = { 1, -2, 3 };``    ``int` `N = ``sizeof``(S) / ``sizeof``(S[0]);`` ` `    ``int` `A = -1, B = 2;`` ` `    ``// Find the number of subsets with desired Sum``    ``cout << numberOfSubsets(S, N, A, B) << endl;``    ``return` `0;``}`

## Python3

 `# Python3 program to find the number of``# subsets that have sum between A and B`` ` `# Module for Bisection algorithms``import` `bisect`` ` `'''``Function to Generate all subsets of a set``    ``start --> Starting Index of the Set for the ``        ``first/second half Set``    ``setSize --> Number of element in half Set``    ``S --> Original Complete Set``    ``res --> Store the subsets sums ``'''``def` `generateSubsets(start, setSize, S, res):``     ` `    ``# setSize of power set of a set with setSize``    ``# N is (2^n - 1)``    ``pow_setSize ``=` `pow``(``2``, setSize)`` ` `    ``# Store the sum of particular subset of set``    ``add ``=` `0`` ` `    ``# Run from counter 000..0 to 111..1``    ``for` `counter ``in` `range``(pow_setSize):``         ` `        ``# set the sum initially to zero``        ``add ``=` `0`` ` `        ``for` `j ``in` `range``(setSize):``             ` `            ``# Check if jth bit in the counter is set``            ``# If set then pront jth element from set``            ``if` `counter & (``1` `<< j):``                ``add ``+``=` `S[j ``+` `start]`` ` `        ``# Store the sum in a vector``        ``res.append(add)``         ` `def` `numberOfSubsets(S, N, A, B):`` ` `    ``# Vectors to store the subsets sums``    ``# of two half sets individually``    ``S1 ``=` `[]``    ``S2 ``=` `[]`` ` `    ``# Generate subset sums for the first half set``    ``generateSubsets(``0``, N ``/``/` `2``, S, S1)`` ` `    ``# Generate subset sums for the second half set``    ``if` `(N ``%` `2` `!``=` `0``):``        ``generateSubsets(N ``/``/` `2``,``                        ``N ``/``/` `2` `+` `1``, S, S2)``    ``else``:``        ``generateSubsets(N ``/``/` `2``, ``                        ``N ``/``/` `2``, S, S2)`` ` `    ``# Sort the second half set``    ``S2.sort()`` ` `    ``# Number of required subsets ``    ``# with desired Sum``    ``ans ``=` `0`` ` `    ``for` `i ``in` `range``(``len``(S1)):`` ` `        ``# Search for lower bound``        ``low ``=` `bisect.bisect_left(S2, A ``-` `S1[i])`` ` `        ``# Search for upper bound``        ``high ``=` `bisect.bisect_right(S2, B ``-` `S1[i])`` ` `        ``# Add up to get the desired answer``        ``ans ``+``=` `(high ``-` `low)`` ` `    ``return` `ans`` ` `# Driver code``if` `__name__``=``=``"__main__"``:`` ` `    ``S ``=` `[ ``1``, ``-``2``, ``3` `]``    ``N ``=` `len``(S)`` ` `    ``A ``=` `-``1``    ``B ``=` `2`` ` `    ``# Find the number of subsets``    ``# with desired Sum``    ``print``(numberOfSubsets(S, N, A, B))``     ` `# This code is contributed by vinaylingam`
Output:
```5
```

Time Complexity: O(2 * 2N/2), where N is the size of set.

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