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Structure of Input-Output Interface
  • Last Updated : 07 Aug, 2020

The block diagram of an Input-Output Interface unit contain the following blocks :

1. Data Bus Buffer
2. Read/Write Control Logic
3. Port A, Port B register
4. Control and Status register 

These are explained as following below.

Data Bus Buffer :
The bus buffer use bi-directional data bus to communicate with CPU. All control word data and status information between interface unit and CPU are transferred through data bus.

Port A and Port B :
Port A and Port B are used to transfer data between Input-Output device and Interface Unit. Each port consist of bi-directional data input buffer and bi-directional data output buffer. Interface unit connect directly with an input device and output disk or with device that require both input and output through Port A and Port B i.e. modem, external hard-drive, magnetic disk.

Control and Status Register :
CPU gives control information to control register on basis of control information. Interface unit control input and output operation between CPU and input-output device. Bits which are present in status register are used for checking of status conditions. Status register indicate status of data register, port A, port B and also record error that may be occur during transfer of data.

Read/Write Control Logic :
This block generates necessary control signals for overall device operations. All commands from CPU are accepted through this block. It also allow status of interface unit to be transferred onto data bus through this block accept CS, read and write control signal from system bus and S0 , S1 from system address bus. Read and Write signal are used to define direction of data transfer over data bus.

Read Operation: CPU <---- I/O device
Write Operation: CPU ----> I/O device

The read signal direct data transfer from interface unit to CPU and write signal direct data transfer from CPU to interface unit through data bus.

Address bus is used to select to interface unit. Two least significant lines of address bus ( A0 , A1 ) are connected to select lines S0, S1. This two select input lines are used to select any one of four registers in interface unit. The selection of interface unit is according to the following criteria :

Read state :

Chip SelectOperationSelect lines

Selection of 

Interface unit

00100Port A
00101Port B
00110Control Register
00111Status Register

Write State :

Chip SelectOperationSelect linesSelection of
Interface unit
01000Port A
01001Port B
01010Control Register
01011Status Register

Example :

  • If S0, S1 = 0 1, then Port B data register is selected for data transfer between CPU and I/O device.
  • If S0, S1 = 1 0, then Control register is selected and store the control information send by the CPU.

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