Streams on Arrays in Java 8

In this article, we would be going through stream method of Arrays class which is added in Java 8, it simplifies many operations on arrays as well have improved the efficiency.
Addition of different features like lambdas and streams in java 8 have made java efficient to write elegant code which have improve the readability providing increase in efficiency of performance in most case .

Syntax :

public static IntStream stream(int[] arr)
Parameter :
arr - An array which is to be converted to the stream
Returns :
An IntStream of an array

Variations :



public static IntStream stream(int[] array)
public static IntStream stream(int[] array, int startInclusive, int endExclusive)
public static DoubleStream stream(double[] array)
public static DoubleStream stream(double[] array, int startInclusive, int endExclusive)
public static LongStream stream(long[] array)
public static LongStream stream(long[] array, int startInclusive, int endExclusive)
public static  Stream stream(T[] array)
public static  Stream stream(T[] array, int startInclusive, int endExclusive)

Prerequisite :-

Note: – Even if you are not familiar with these topics, you can go through the article as it uses very basic lambda expression and explains how to use method of stream class.
Let’s see an example of streams on Arrays. In this example we will be finding average over the array elements and will see the difference in way of writing code in imperative and declarative styles
Example 1:

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import java.util.Arrays;
class GFG_Demo_1 {
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
        int arr[] = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
            11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 };
  
        // Let's try the imperative style first(which we
        // are familiar with)
        int sum = 0;
        for (int i = 0; i < arr.length; i++)
            sum += arr[i];
        System.out.println("Average using iteration :" +
                                    (sum / arr.length));
  
        // Let's try the declarative style now
        sum = Arrays.stream(arr) // Step 1
                  .sum(); // Step 2
        System.out.println("Average using streams : " +
                                   (sum / arr.length));
  
        // forEach()
        // It iterates through the entire streams
        System.out.println("Printing array elements : ");
        Arrays.stream(arr)
            .forEach(e->System.out.print(e + " "));
    }
}

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Output:

Average using iteration :10
Average using streams : 10
Printing array elements :
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

In the above example you have seen stream working let’s see what these step does.
Step 1:
Arrays.stream(arr) – In this step we call the stream method on the Arrays class passing arr as the parameter to the function this statement returns IntStream.
Step 2:
Arrays.stream(arr).sum() – Once we get the IntStream we can use different methods of the IntStream interface.
While you go through IntStream. interface documentation you can open each method to see whether it’s perform a terminal operation or intermediate operation. And we should use this method accordingly either at the terminal or in between.
Now let’s go through different methods of IntStream and see what operations this methods perform.We will see example of all this methods in contrast of an array..
We will going through the following methods in the example below.

  1. asDoubleStream()
  2. asLongStream()
  3. anyMatch()
  4. allMatch()
  5. noneMatch()
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import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.function.IntPredicate;
class GFG_Demo_2 {
  public static void main(String[] args)
  {
        int arr_sample1[] = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
                 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 };
  
        // asDoubleStream()
        // It converts the original array to double
        System.out.println("Example of asDoubleStream(): ");
        Arrays.stream(arr_sample1)
            .asDoubleStream()
            .forEach(e->System.out.print(e + " "));
  
        // asLongStream()
        // It converts the original array to Long
        System.out.println("\nExample of asLongStream");
        Arrays.stream(arr_sample1)
            .asLongStream()
            .forEach(e->System.out.print(e + " "));
  
        int arr_sample2[] = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,
            10, 23, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 };
  
        // anyMatch()
        // This method find whether the given predicate 
        // is in the array or not
        System.out.println("\nExample of anyMatch");
  
        // Test whether any of the element in array is 
        // divisible by 11 or not
        IntPredicate predicate = e->e % 11 == 0;
        System.out.println(Arrays.stream(arr_sample2)
                               .anyMatch(predicate));
  
        // You can directly write the lambda expression
        // which computes to IntPredicate
        // Uncomment to test
        // System.out.println(Arrays.stream(arr)
        // .anyMatch(e -> e % 11 == 0));
  
        int arr_sample3[] = { 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 };
        int arr_sample4[] = { 1, 3, 5, 7, 11 };
  
        // allMatch()
        // This method finds whether the given predicate 
        // matches the entire array or not
        System.out.println("Example of allMatch :");
  
        // Returns true as all the elements of arr_sample3
        // is even
        System.out.println(Arrays.stream(arr_sample3)
                               .allMatch(e->e % 2 == 0));
  
        // Returns false as all the elements of arr_sammple4
        // is odd
        System.out.println(Arrays.stream(arr_sample4)
                               .allMatch(e->e % 2 == 0));
  
        // noneMatch()
        System.out.println("Example of noneMatch");
        System.out.println(Arrays.stream(arr_sample4)
                               .noneMatch(e->e % 2 == 0));
    }
}

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Output:

Example of asDoubleStream():
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0
14.0 15.0 16.0 17.0 18.0 19.0 20.0
Example of asLongStream
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Example of anyMatch
false
Example of allMatch :
true
false
Example of noneMatch
true

We have seen very few methods though IntStream provides many more, lets try some more.
We will going through the following methods in the example below.

  1. average()
  2. findAny()
  3. findFirst()
  4. max()
  5. min()
  6. reduce()

Remember all this method returns OptionalInt or OptionalDouble instead of int or double.

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import java.util.Arrays;
class GFG_Demo_3 {
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
        int arr_sample1[] = { 11, 2, 3, 42, 5, 6, 17, 8, 9
               10, 11, 12, 13, 24, 55, 16, 47, 18, 19, 20 };
        System.out.println("These method retuns Optional");
  
        // average()
        // This method returns a average of an array
        System.out.println("Example of average() : ");
        System.out.println((Arrays.stream(arr_sample1)
                                .average()));
  
        // findAny()
        // It can return any value from the stream
        // Most of the time it returns the first value 
        // but it is not assured it can return any value
        System.out.println("Example of findAny() : ");
        System.out.println(Arrays.stream(arr_sample1)
                               .findAny());
  
        // findFirst()
        // It returns the first element of the stream
        System.out.println("Example of findFirst() :");
        System.out.println(Arrays.stream(arr_sample1)
                               .findFirst());
  
        // max()
        // It returns the max element in an array
        System.out.println("Example of max() :");
        System.out.println(Arrays.stream(arr_sample1)
                               .max());
  
        // min()
        // It returns the max element in an array
        System.out.println("Example of max() :");
        System.out.println(Arrays.stream(arr_sample1)
                               .min());
  
        // reduce()
        // It reduces the array by certain operation
        // Here it performs addition of array elements
        System.out.println("Example of reduce() :");
        System.out.println(Arrays.stream(arr_sample1)
                               .reduce((x, y)->x + y));
  
        // reduce() have another variation which we will
        // see in different example
    }
}

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Output:

These method retuns Optional
Example of average() :
OptionalDouble[17.4]
Example of findAny() :
OptionalInt[11]
Example of findFirst() :
OptionalInt[11]
Example of max() :
OptionalInt[55]
Example of max() :
OptionalInt[2]
Example of reduce() :
OptionalInt[348]

But it becomes really difficult to work with this OptionalInt and OptionalDouble, hence Java provides method to convert them into double and int values such that it can be easily reused

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import java.util.Arrays;
class GFG_Demo_4 {
public static void main(String[] args)
    {
        int arr_sample1[] = { 11, 2, 3, 42, 5, 6, 17, 8, 9,
                10, 11, 12, 13, 24, 55, 16, 47, 18, 19, 20 };
        System.out.println("These method convert Optional to primitive");
  
        // OptionalDouble can be converted to double by using getAsDouble()
        // if average doesn't contains any value it throws NoSuchElementException
        System.out.println("Example of average() : ");
        System.out.println((Arrays.stream(arr_sample1)
                                .average()
                                .getAsDouble()));
  
        // OptionalInt can be converted to int by using getAsInt()
        System.out.println("Example of findAny() : ");
        System.out.println(Arrays.stream(arr_sample1)
                               .findAny()
                               .getAsInt());
    }
}

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Output:

These method convert Optional to primitive
Example of average() :
17.4
Example of findAny() :
11

There are some more methods provided by IntStream which we will be going through in different article and would be working with different variations of stream method.

Reference :
https://docs.oracle.com/javase/8/docs/api/java/util/Arrays.html
https://docs.oracle.com/javase/8/docs/api/java/util/stream/IntStream.html

This article is contributed by Sumit Ghosh. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to contribute@geeksforgeeks.org. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.

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