In SQL a Subquery can be simply defined as a query within another query. In other words we can say that a Subquery is a query that is embedded in WHERE clause of another SQL query.
Important rules for Subqueries:
- You can place the Subquery in a number of SQL clauses: WHERE clause, HAVING clause, FROM clause.
Subqueries can be used with SELECT, UPDATE, INSERT, DELETE statements along with expression operator. It could be equality operator or comparison operator such as =, >, =, <= and Like operator.
- A subquery is a query within another query. The outer query is called as main query and inner query is called as subquery.
- The subquery generally executes first, and its output is used to complete the query condition for the main or outer query.
- Subquery must be enclosed in parentheses.
- Subqueries are on the right side of the comparison operator.
- ORDER BY command cannot be used in a Subquery. GROUPBY command can be used to perform same function as ORDER BY command.
- Use single-row operators with singlerow Subqueries. Use multiple-row operators with multiple-row Subqueries.
There is not any general syntax for Subqueries. However, Subqueries are seen to be used most frequently with SELECT statement as shown below:
SELECT column_name FROM table_name WHERE column_name expression operator ( SELECT COLUMN_NAME from TABLE_NAME WHERE ... );
- To display NAME, LOCATION, PHONE_NUMBER of the students from DATABASE table whose section is A
Select NAME, LOCATION, PHONE_NUMBER from DATABASE WHERE ROLL_NO IN (SELECT ROLL_NO from STUDENT where SECTION=’A’);
Explanation : First subquery executes “ SELECT ROLL_NO from STUDENT where SECTION=’A’ ” returns ROLL_NO from STUDENT table whose SECTION is ‘A’.Then outer-query executes it and return the NAME, LOCATION, PHONE_NUMBER from the DATABASE table of the student whose ROLL_NO is returned from inner subquery.
NAME ROLL_NO LOCATION PHONE_NUMBER Ravi 104 Salem 8989898989 Raj 102 Coimbatore 8877665544
- Insert Query Example:
NAME ROLL_NO LOCATION PHONE_NUMBER Ram 101 chennai 9988773344 Raju 102 coimbatore 9090909090 Ravi 103 salem 8989898989
NAME ROLL_NO LOCATION PHONE_NUMBER Raj 111 chennai 8787878787 Sai 112 mumbai 6565656565 Sri 113 coimbatore 7878787878
To insert Student2 into Student1 table:
INSERT INTO Student1 SELECT * FROM Student2;
NAME ROLL_NO LOCATION PHONE_NUMBER Ram 101 chennai 9988773344 Raju 102 coimbatore 9090909090 Ravi 103 salem 8989898989 Raj 111 chennai 8787878787 Sai 112 mumbai 6565656565 Sri 113 coimbatore 7878787878
- To delete students from Student2 table whose rollno is same as that in Student1 table and having location as chennai
DELETE FROM Student2 WHERE ROLL_NO IN ( SELECT ROLL_NO FROM Student1 WHERE LOCATION = ’chennai’);
1 row delete successfully.
Display Student2 table:
NAME ROLL_NO LOCATION PHONE_NUMBER Sai 112 mumbai 6565656565 Sri 113 coimbatore 7878787878
- To update name of the students to geeks in Student2 table whose location is same as Raju,Ravi in Student1 table
UPDATE Student2 SET NAME=’geeks’ WHERE LOCATION IN ( SELECT LOCATION FROM Student1 WHERE NAME IN (‘Raju’,’Ravi’));
1 row updated successfully.
Display Student2 table:
NAME ROLL_NO LOCATION PHONE_NUMBER Sai 112 mumbai 6565656565 geeks 113 coimbatore 7878787878
This article is contributed by RanjaniRavi. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to firstname.lastname@example.org. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.
Please write comments if you find anything incorrect, or you want to share more information about the topic discussed above.
Attention reader! Don’t stop learning now. Get hold of all the important DSA concepts with the DSA Self Paced Course at a student-friendly price and become industry ready.