Skip to content
Related Articles

Related Articles

Spring @Bean Annotation with Example

View Discussion
Improve Article
Save Article
Like Article
  • Last Updated : 30 Jun, 2022

One of the most important annotations in spring is the @Bean annotation which is applied on a method to specify that it returns a bean to be managed by Spring context. Spring Bean annotation is usually declared in Configuration classes methods. This annotation is also a part of the spring core framework. So let’s understand @Bean Annotation with an example project.

Prerequisite

  • Spring @ComponentScan Annotation with Example
  • Spring @Configuration Annotation with Example

Implementation: Project

Suppose we have already a Java project and all the Spring JAR files are imported into that project. Now let’s create a simple class named College and inside the class, we have a simple method. Below is the code for the College.java file and using the @Component and @ComponentScan annotation let’s create the bean of this college class. So we can write code for the College.java file something like this. 

A. File: College.java 

Java




// Java Program to Illustrate College Class
 
package BeanAnnotation;
 
// Importing required classes
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;
 
// Annotation
@Component("collegeBean")
 
// Class
public class College {
 
    // Method
    public void test()
    {
        // Print statement
        System.out.println("Test College Method");
    }
}

Now let’s create a Configuration class named CollegeConfig. Below is the code for the CollegeConfig.java file

Configuration Class 

Java




// Java Program to Illustrate Configuration Class
 
package ComponetAnnotation;
 
// Importing required classes
import org.springframework.context.annotation.ComponentScan;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
 
// Annotation
@Configuration
@ComponentScan(basePackages = "BeanAnnotation")
 
// Class
public class CollegeConfig {
}

 
 

But we do not want to use the @Component and @ComponentScan annotations to create the beans. Let’s discuss another way of doing the same task. So we are going to create the spring beans using the @Bean annotation. To create the College class bean using the @Bean annotation inside the configuration class we can write something like this inside our CollegeConfig.java file. Please refer to the comments for a better understanding. 

@Bean
// Here the method name is the
// bean id/bean name

public College collegeBean()
{
    // Returns the College object
    return new College();
}

B. File: CollegeConfig.java 

Java




// Java Program to Illustrate
// Configuration of College Class
 
package BeanAnnotation;
 
// Importing required classes
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
 
// Annotation
@Configuration
 
// Class
public class CollegeConfig {
 
    // Creating College class Bean
    // using Bean annotation
    @Bean
 
    // Here the method name is the
    // bean id/bean name
    public College collegeBean()
    {
 
        // Returns the College class object
        return new College();
    }
}

 
 

Note: Whenever you are using the @Bean annotation to create the bean you don’t need to use the @ComponentScan annotation inside your configuration class. 

Now to check our application let’s create a main method inside our Main class. Below is the code for the Main.java file. Comments are added inside the code to understand the code in more detail.

C. Application Class 

Java




// Java Program to Illustrate Application Class
 
package BeanAnnotation;
 
// Importing required classes
import org.springframework.context.ApplicationContext;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.AnnotationConfigApplicationContext;
 
// Main(Application) Class
public class Main {
 
    // Main driver method
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
 
        // Using AnnotationConfigApplicationContext
        // instead of ClassPathXmlApplicationContext
        // because we are not using XML Configuration
        ApplicationContext context
            = new AnnotationConfigApplicationContext(
                CollegeConfig.class);
 
        // Getting the bean
        College college
            = context.getBean("collegeBean", College.class);
 
        // Invoking the method
        // inside main() method
        college.test();
    }
}

Output:

Test College Method

Tip: Now let’s remove the @Bean annotation before the collegeBean() method and run our program again and you can see we are going to get the “NoSuchBeanDefinitionException” exception 

Exception in thread "main" org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException: No bean named 'collegeBean' available
    at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.getBeanDefinition(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:863)
    at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory.getMergedLocalBeanDefinition(AbstractBeanFactory.java:1344)
    at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory.doGetBean(AbstractBeanFactory.java:309)
    at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory.getBean(AbstractBeanFactory.java:213)
    at org.springframework.context.support.AbstractApplicationContext.getBean(AbstractApplicationContext.java:1160)
    at BeanAnnotation.Main.main(Main.java:15)

So the point is to make the collegeBean() method work like a bean you need to define the @Bean annotation before that particular method. 

Giving Different Bean ID/Bean Name

Now the question is can we give a different Bean ID for this collegeBean() method? Yes, we can. We can modify our code something like this. 

// Annotation 
@Bean(name = "myCollegeBean")

// Class 
public College collegeBean()
{
    return new College();
}

So whenever you want to test your application you have to also change your Main.java file to something like this. 

D. Application Class 

Java




// Java Program to Illustrate Application Class
 
package BeanAnnotation;
 
// Importing required classes
import org.springframework.context.ApplicationContext;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.AnnotationConfigApplicationContext;
 
// Application(Main) class
public class Main {
 
    // main driver method
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
 
        // Using AnnotationConfigApplicationContext
        // instead of ClassPathXmlApplicationContext
        // because we are not using XML Configuration
        ApplicationContext context
            = new AnnotationConfigApplicationContext(
                CollegeConfig.class);
 
        // Getting the bean
        College college = context.getBean("myCollegeBean",
                                          College.class);
 
        // Invoking the method
        // inside main() method
        college.test();
    }
}

Giving Multiple Names to the Same Bean

One more interesting thing is we can give multiple names to this particular collegeBean() method. So further we can modify our code something like this. 

@Bean(name = {"myCollegeBean", "yourCollegeBean"})
public College collegeBean()
{
    return new College();
}

Similarly, you need to modify your Main.java file during the execution of your application. 

Dependency Injection with @Bean Annotation 

Now let’s discuss another scenario. Suppose we have a dependency class named Principal inside our College class then what to do? So the scenario is like this. We have a class named Principal.java and we have defined a simple method inside this.

Example

Java




// Java Program to Illustrate Principal Class
 
package BeanAnnotation;
 
// Class
public class Principal {
 
    // Method
    public void principalInfo()
    {
        // Print statement
        System.out.println("Hi, I am your principal");
    }
}

And our College.class is something like this

Java




// Java Program to Illustrate College Class
 
package BeanAnnotation;
 
// Class
public class College {
 
    // Class data member
    private Principal principal;
 
    // Method
    public void test()
    {
        principal.principalInfo();
 
        // Print statement
        System.out.println("Test College Method");
    }
}

 
 

So now we want to do the dependency injection. So we can do it in 2 ways as listed later implemented as shown below:

  1. Constructor Dependency Injection (CDI)
  2. Setter Dependency Injection (SDI)

Way 1: Constructor Dependency Injection (CDI)

In that case, first, let’s create a constructor inside the College class. So our modified College.java file is

A. College Class 

Java




// Java Program to Illustrate College Class
 
package BeanAnnotation;
 
// Class
public class College {
 
    private Principal principal;
 
    public College(Principal principal)
    {
        this.principal = principal;
    }
 
    public void test()
    {
        principal.principalInfo();
        System.out.println("Test College Method");
    }
}

Now come to the CollegeConfig.java file and the modified CollegeConfig.java is given below. Refer to the comments for better understanding. 

B. Configuration Class 

Java




// Java Program to Illustrate Configuration Class
 
package BeanAnnotation;
 
// Importing required classes
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
 
// Annotation
@Configuration
public class CollegeConfig {
 
    // Creating the Bean for Principal Class
    @Bean public Principal principalBean()
    {
        return new Principal();
    }
 
    @Bean public College collegeBean()
    {
        // Constructor Injection
        return new College(principalBean());
    }
}

And finally Below is the code for the Main.java file.

C. Application Class 

Java




// Java Program to Illustrate Application Class
 
package BeanAnnotation;
 
// Importing required classes
import org.springframework.context.ApplicationContext;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.AnnotationConfigApplicationContext;
 
// Main class
public class Main {
 
    // Main driver method
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
 
        // Using AnnotationConfigApplicationContext
        // instead of ClassPathXmlApplicationContext
        // because we are not using XML Configuration
        ApplicationContext context
            = new AnnotationConfigApplicationContext(
                CollegeConfig.class);
 
        // Getting the bean
        College college
            = context.getBean("collegeBean", College.class);
 
        // Invoking the method
        // inside main() method
        college.test();
    }
}

Output:

Hi, I am your principal
Test College Method

Way 2: Setter Dependency Injection (SDI) 

In that case, first, let’s create a setter method inside the College class. So our modified College.java file is as follows:  

A. College Class  

Java




// Java Program to Illustrate College Class
 
package BeanAnnotation;
 
// Class
public class College {
 
    // Class data members
    private Principal principal;
 
    // Setter
    public void setPrincipal(Principal principal)
    {
 
        // this keywords refers to current instance itself
        this.principal = principal;
    }
 
    // Method
    public void test()
    {
        principal.principalInfo();
 
        // Print statement
        System.out.println("Test College Method");
    }
}

Now come to the CollegeConfig.java file and the modified CollegeConfig.java is given below as follows: 

B. Configuration Class

Java




// Java Program to Illustrate Configuration Class
 
package BeanAnnotation;
 
// Importing required classes
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
 
// Annotation
@Configuration
 
// Class
public class CollegeConfig {
 
    // Creating the Bean for Principal Class
    @Bean public Principal principalBean()
    {
 
        return new Principal();
    }
 
    @Bean public College collegeBean()
    {
 
        // Setter Injection
        College college = new College();
        college.setPrincipal(principalBean());
 
        return college;
    }
}

And finally Below is the code for the Main.java file. 

C. Application Class

Java




// Java Program to Illustrate Application (Main) Class
 
package BeanAnnotation;
 
// Importing required classes
import org.springframework.context.ApplicationContext;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.AnnotationConfigApplicationContext;
 
// Application (Main) class
public class Main {
 
    // Main driver method
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
 
        // Using AnnotationConfigApplicationContext
        // instead of ClassPathXmlApplicationContext
        // because we are not using XML Configuration
        ApplicationContext context
            = new AnnotationConfigApplicationContext(
                CollegeConfig.class);
 
        // Getting the bean
        College college
            = context.getBean("collegeBean", College.class);
 
        // Invoking the method
        // inside main() method
        college.test();
    }
}

Output:

Hi, I am your principal
Test College Method

My Personal Notes arrow_drop_up
Recommended Articles
Page :

Start Your Coding Journey Now!