# Sparse Search

Given a sorted array of strings which is interspersed with empty strings, write a method to find the location of a given string.

Examples:

```Input : arr[] = {"for", "geeks", "", "", "", "", "ide",
"practice", "", "", "", "quiz"}
x = "geeks"
Output : 1

Input : arr[] = {"for", "geeks", "", "", "", "", "ide",
"practice", "", "", "", "quiz"},
x = "ds"
Output : -1
```

## Recommended: Please try your approach on {IDE} first, before moving on to the solution.

If there were no empty strings then we could’ve simply performed binary search. We can still use Binary Search with a little modification. If our mid is empty we just have to move mid to closest Non-Empty string.

Below is a implementation of above approach.

 `// CPP program to implement binary search ` `// in a sparse array. ` `#include ` `using` `namespace` `std; ` ` `  `/* Binary Search in an array with blanks */` `int` `binarySearch(string *arr, ``int` `low, ``int` `high, string x) { ` `  ``if` `(low > high) ` `    ``return` `-1; ` ` `  `  ``int` `mid = (low + high) / 2; ` ` `  `  ``/*Modified Part*/` `  ``if` `(arr[mid] == ``""``) { ` `    ``int` `left = mid - 1; ` `    ``int` `right = mid + 1; ` ` `  `    ``/*Search for both side for a non empty string*/` `    ``while` `(1) { ` ` `  `      ``/* No non-empty string on both sides */` `      ``if` `(left < low && right > high) ` `        ``return` `-1; ` ` `  `      ``if` `(left >= low && arr[left] != ``""``) { ` `        ``mid = left; ` `        ``break``; ` `      ``} ` ` `  `      ``else` `if` `(right <= high && arr[right] != ``""``) { ` `        ``mid = right; ` `        ``break``; ` `      ``} ` ` `  `      ``left--; ` `      ``right++; ` `    ``} ` `  ``} ` ` `  `  ``/* Normal Binary Search */` `  ``if` `(arr[mid] == x) ` `    ``return` `mid; ` `  ``else` `if` `(arr[mid] > x) ` `    ``return` `binarySearch(arr, low, mid - 1, x); ` `  ``else` `    ``return` `binarySearch(arr, mid + 1, high, x); ` `} ` ` `  `int` `sparseSearch(string arr[], string x, ``int` `n) { ` `  ``return` `binarySearch(arr, 0, n - 1, x); ` `} ` ` `  `int` `main() { ` `  ``ios_base::sync_with_stdio(``false``); ` ` `  `  ``string arr[] = {``"for"``, ``"geeks"``, ``""``, ``""``, ``""``, ``""``, ``"ide"``,  ` `                      ``"practice"``, ``""``, ``""``, ``""``, ``"quiz"``}; ` `  ``string x = ``"geeks"``; ` `  ``int` `n = ``sizeof``(arr) / ``sizeof``(arr); ` `  ``int` `index = sparseSearch(arr, x, n); ` `  ``if` `(index != -1) ` `    ``cout << x << ``" found at index "` `<< index << ``"\n"``; ` `  ``else` `    ``cout << x << ``" not found\n"``; ` `  ``return` `0; ` `} `

 `// Java program to implement binary search ` `// in a sparse array. ` ` `  `class` `solution ` `{ ` ` `  `// Binary Search in an array with blanks  ` `static` `int` `binarySearch(String arr[], ``int` `low, ``int` `high, String x) { ` `if` `(low > high) ` `    ``return` `-``1``; ` ` `  `int` `mid = (low + high) / ``2``; ` ` `  `//Modified Part ` `if` `(arr[mid] == ``""``) { ` `    ``int` `left = mid - ``1``; ` `    ``int` `right = mid + ``1``; ` ` `  `    ``/*Search for both side for a non empty string*/` `    ``while` `(``true``) { ` ` `  `    ``/* No non-empty string on both sides */` `    ``if` `(left < low && right > high) ` `        ``return` `-``1``; ` ` `  `    ``if` `(left >= low && arr[left] != ``""``) { ` `        ``mid = left; ` `        ``break``; ` `    ``} ` ` `  `    ``else` `if` `(right <= high && arr[right] != ``""``) { ` `        ``mid = right; ` `        ``break``; ` `    ``} ` ` `  `    ``left--; ` `    ``right++; ` `    ``} ` `} ` ` `  `/* Normal Binary Search */` `if` `(arr[mid] == x) ` `    ``return` `mid; ` `else` `if` `(x.compareTo(arr[mid]) < ``0``) ` `    ``return` `binarySearch(arr, low, mid - ``1``, x); ` `else` `    ``return` `binarySearch(arr, mid + ``1``, high, x); ` `} ` ` `  `static` `int` `sparseSearch(String arr[], String x, ``int` `n) { ` `return` `binarySearch(arr, ``0``, n - ``1``, x); ` `} ` ` `  `public` `static` `void` `main(String args[]) { ` ` `  `String arr[] = {``"for"``, ``"geeks"``, ``""``, ``""``, ``""``, ``""``, ``"ide"``,  ` `                    ``"practice"``, ``""``, ``""``, ``""``, ``"quiz"``}; ` `String x = ``"geeks"``; ` `int` `n = x.length(); ` `int` `index = sparseSearch(arr, x, n); ` `if` `(index != -``1``) ` `    ``System.out.println(x+ ``" found at index "``+index); ` `else` `    ``System.out.println(x+``" not found"``); ` ` `  `} ` `} ` ` `  `// This code is implemented by  ` `// Surendra_Gangwar `

 `# Python3 program to implement binary search  ` `#  in a sparse array ` ` `  `def` `sparseSearch(arr , key , low , high): ` ` `  `    ``left ``=` `0``; right ``=` `0` `     `  `    ``while` `low <``=` `high: ` ` `  `            ``mid ``=` `(low ``+` `high) ``/``/` `2` ` `  `            ``if` `arr[mid] ``=``=` `'': ` `                ``left ``=` `mid ``-` `1` `                ``right ``=` `mid ``+` `1` ` `  `                ``# Check for out of bounds ` `                ``if` `left < low ``and` `right > high: ` `                        ``return` `-``1` ` `  `                ``elif` `right <``=` `high ``and` `arr[right] !``=` `'': ` `                        ``# Search right ` `                        ``mid ``=` `right ` `                 `  ` `  `                ``elif` `left >``=` `low ``and` `arr[left] !``=` `'': ` `                        ``# Search left ` `                        ``mid ``=` `left ` ` `  ` `  `            ``if` `arr[mid] ``=``=` `key: ` `                ``print``(``'Found string {} at index {}'``.``format` `                     ``(arr[mid] , mid)) ` `                ``return` ` `  `            ``# Classical Binary search ` `            ``# search left ` `            ``elif` `arr[mid] > key: ` `                ``high ``=` `mid ``-` `1` ` `  `            ``# search right ` `            ``elif` `arr[mid] < key: ` `                ``low ``=` `mid ``+` `1` `     `  `            ``left ``-``=` `1` `            ``right ``+``=` `1` ` `  `    ``return` `-``1` ` `  ` `  `if` `__name__ ``=``=` `'__main__'``: ` ` `  `    ``arr ``=` `[``"for"``, ``"geeks"``, "``", "``", "``", "``", "``ide",  ` `                    ``"practice"``, "``", "``", "``", "``quiz"]                  ` `    ``key ``=` `'geeks'` ` `  `    ``low ``=` `0` `    ``high ``=` `len``(arr) ``-` `1` `     `  `    ``sparseSearch(arr , key , low , high) ` ` `  `# This is  Code contributed by  ` `# Ashwin Viswanathan `

Output:
```geeks found at index 1
```

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