# Sorting array of strings (or words) using Trie | Set-2 (Handling Duplicates)

• Difficulty Level : Medium
• Last Updated : 06 Feb, 2023

Given an array of strings, print them in alphabetical (dictionary) order. If there are duplicates in input array, we need to print all the occurrences.
Examples:

```Input : arr[] = { "abc", "xyz", "abcd", "bcd", "abc" }
Output : abc abc abcd bcd xyz

Input : arr[] = { "geeks", "for", "geeks", "a", "portal",
"to", "learn" }
Output : a for geeks geeks learn portal to```

Prerequisite: Trie | (Insert and Search).
Approach: In the previous post array of strings is being sorted, printing only single occurrence of duplicate strings. In this post all occurrences of duplicate strings are printed in lexicographic order. To print the strings in alphabetical order we have to first insert them in the trie and then perform preorder traversal to print in alphabetical order. The nodes of trie contain an index[] array which stores the index position of all the strings of arr[] ending at that node. Except for trie’s leaf node all the other nodes have size 0 for the index[] array.
Below is the implementation of the above approach.

## C++

 `// C++ implementation to sort an array``// of strings using Trie``#include ``using` `namespace` `std;` `const` `int` `MAX_CHAR = 26;` `struct` `Trie {` `    ``// 'index' vectors size is greater than``    ``// 0 when node/ is a leaf node, otherwise``    ``// size is 0;``    ``vector<``int``> index;` `    ``Trie* child[MAX_CHAR];` `    ``/*to make new trie*/``    ``Trie()``    ``{``        ``// initializing fields``        ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i < MAX_CHAR; i++)``            ``child[i] = NULL;``    ``}``};` `// function to insert a string in trie``void` `insert(Trie* root, string str, ``int` `index)``{``    ``Trie* node = root;` `    ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i < str.size(); i++) {` `        ``// taking ascii value to find index of``        ``// child node``        ``char` `ind = str[i] - ``'a'``;` `        ``// making a new path if not already``        ``if` `(!node->child[ind])``            ``node->child[ind] = ``new` `Trie();` `        ``// go to next node``        ``node = node->child[ind];``    ``}` `    ``// Mark leaf (end of string) and store``    ``// index of 'str' in index[]``    ``(node->index).push_back(index);``}` `// function for preorder traversal of trie``void` `preorder(Trie* node, string arr[])``{``    ``// if node is empty``    ``if` `(node == NULL)``        ``return``;` `    ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i < MAX_CHAR; i++) {``        ``if` `(node->child[i] != NULL) {` `            ``// if leaf node then print all the strings``            ``// for (node->child[i]->index).size() > 0)``            ``for` `(``int` `j = 0; j < (node->child[i]->index).size(); j++)``                ``cout << arr[node->child[i]->index[j]] << ``" "``;` `            ``preorder(node->child[i], arr);``        ``}``    ``}``}` `// function to sort an array``// of strings using Trie``void` `printSorted(string arr[], ``int` `n)``{``    ``Trie* root = ``new` `Trie();` `    ``// insert all strings of dictionary into trie``    ``for` `(``int` `i = 0; i < n; i++)``        ``insert(root, arr[i], i);` `    ``// print strings in lexicographic order``    ``preorder(root, arr);``}` `// Driver program to test above``int` `main()``{``    ``string arr[] = { ``"abc"``, ``"xyz"``, ``"abcd"``, ``"bcd"``, ``"abc"` `};``    ``int` `n = ``sizeof``(arr) / ``sizeof``(arr[0]);``    ``printSorted(arr, n);``    ``return` `0;``}`

## Java

 `// Java implementation``// to sort an array of``// strings using Trie``import` `java.util.*;` `class` `Trie {` `    ``private` `Node rootNode;` `    ``/*to make new trie*/``    ``Trie()``    ``{``        ``rootNode = ``null``;``    ``}` `    ``// function to insert``    ``// a string in trie``    ``void` `insert(String key, ``int` `index)``    ``{``        ``// making a new path``        ``// if not already``        ``if` `(rootNode == ``null``)``        ``{``            ``rootNode = ``new` `Node();``        ``}` `        ``Node currentNode = rootNode;` `        ``for` `(``int` `i = ``0``;i < key.length();i++)``        ``{``            ``char` `keyChar = key.charAt(i);``    ` `            ``if` `(currentNode.getChild(keyChar) == ``null``)``            ``{``                ``currentNode.addChild(keyChar);``            ``}``            ` `            ``// go to next node``            ``currentNode = currentNode.getChild(keyChar);``        ``}` `        ``// Mark leaf (end of string)``        ``// and store index of 'str'``        ``// in index[]``        ``currentNode.addIndex(index);``    ``}` `    ``void` `traversePreorder(String[] array)``    ``{``        ``traversePreorder(rootNode, array);``    ``}` `    ``// function for preorder``    ``// traversal of trie``    ``private` `void` `traversePreorder(Node node,``                             ``String[] array)``    ``{``        ``if` `(node == ``null``)``        ``{``            ``return``;``        ``}` `        ``if` `(node.getIndices().size() > ``0``)``        ``{``            ``for` `(``int` `index : node.getIndices())``            ``{``                ``System.out.print(array[index] + ``" "``);``            ``}``        ``}` `        ``for` `(``char` `index = ``'a'``;index <= ``'z'``;index++)``        ``{``            ``traversePreorder(node.getChild(index), array);``        ``}``    ``}` `    ``private` `static` `class` `Node {` `        ``private` `Node[] children;``        ``private` `List indices;` `        ``Node()``        ``{``            ``children = ``new` `Node[``26``];``            ``indices = ``new` `ArrayList<>(``0``);``        ``}` `        ``Node getChild(``char` `index)``        ``{``            ``if` `(index < ``'a'` `|| index > ``'z'``)``            ``{``                ``return` `null``;``            ``}``            ` `            ``return` `children[index - ``'a'``];``        ``}` `        ``void` `addChild(``char` `index)``        ``{``            ``if` `(index < ``'a'` `|| index > ``'z'``)``            ``{``                ``return``;``            ``}``            ` `            ``Node node = ``new` `Node();``            ``children[index - ``'a'``] = node;``        ``}` `        ``List getIndices()``        ``{``            ``return` `indices;``        ``}` `        ``void` `addIndex(``int` `index)``        ``{``            ``indices.add(index);``        ``}``    ``}``}` `class` `SortStrings {` `    ``// Driver program``    ``public` `static` `void` `main(String[] args)``    ``{``        ``String[] array = { ``"abc"``, ``"xyz"``,``                    ``"abcd"``, ``"bcd"``, ``"abc"` `};``        ``printInSortedOrder(array);``    ``}` `    ``// function to sort an array``    ``// of strings using Trie``    ``private` `static` `void` `printInSortedOrder(String[] array)``    ``{``        ``Trie trie = ``new` `Trie();``        ` `        ``for` `(``int` `i = ``0``;i < array.length;i++)``        ``{``            ``trie.insert(array[i], i);``        ``}``        ` `        ``trie.traversePreorder(array);``    ``}``}` `// Contributed by Harikrishnan Rajan`

## C#

 `// C# implementation``// to sort an array of``// strings using Trie``using` `System;``using` `System.Collections.Generic;` `public` `class` `Trie``{` `    ``public` `Node rootNode;` `    ``/* to make new trie*/``    ``public` `Trie()``    ``{``        ``rootNode = ``null``;``    ``}` `    ``// function to insert``    ``// a string in trie``    ``public` `void` `insert(String key, ``int` `index)``    ``{``        ``// making a new path``        ``// if not already``        ``if` `(rootNode == ``null``)``        ``{``            ``rootNode = ``new` `Node();``        ``}` `        ``Node currentNode = rootNode;` `        ``for` `(``int` `i = 0;i < key.Length;i++)``        ``{``            ``char` `keyChar = key[i];``    ` `            ``if` `(currentNode.getChild(keyChar) == ``null``)``            ``{``                ``currentNode.addChild(keyChar);``            ``}``            ` `            ``// go to next node``            ``currentNode = currentNode.getChild(keyChar);``        ``}` `        ``// Mark leaf (end of string)``        ``// and store index of 'str'``        ``// in index[]``        ``currentNode.addIndex(index);``    ``}` `    ``public` `void` `traversePreorder(String[] array)``    ``{``        ``traversePreorder(rootNode, array);``    ``}` `    ``// function for preorder``    ``// traversal of trie``    ``public` `void` `traversePreorder(Node node,``                            ``String[] array)``    ``{``        ``if` `(node == ``null``)``        ``{``            ``return``;``        ``}` `        ``if` `(node.getIndices().Count > 0)``        ``{``            ``foreach` `(``int` `index ``in` `node.getIndices())``            ``{``                ``Console.Write(array[index] + ``" "``);``            ``}``        ``}` `        ``for` `(``char` `index = ``'a'``;index <= ``'z'``;index++)``        ``{``            ``traversePreorder(node.getChild(index), array);``        ``}``    ``}` `    ``public` `class` `Node``    ``{` `        ``public` `Node[] children;``        ``public` `List<``int``> indices;` `        ``public` `Node()``        ``{``            ``children = ``new` `Node[26];``            ``indices = ``new` `List<``int``>(0);``        ``}` `        ``public` `Node getChild(``char` `index)``        ``{``            ``if` `(index < ``'a'` `|| index > ``'z'``)``            ``{``                ``return` `null``;``            ``}``            ` `            ``return` `children[index - ``'a'``];``        ``}` `        ``public` `void` `addChild(``char` `index)``        ``{``            ``if` `(index < ``'a'` `|| index > ``'z'``)``            ``{``                ``return``;``            ``}``            ` `            ``Node node = ``new` `Node();``            ``children[index - ``'a'``] = node;``        ``}` `        ``public` `List<``int``> getIndices()``        ``{``            ``return` `indices;``        ``}` `        ``public` `void` `addIndex(``int` `index)``        ``{``            ``indices.Add(index);``        ``}``    ``}``}` `public` `class` `SortStrings``{` `    ``// Driver code``    ``public` `static` `void` `Main(String[] args)``    ``{``        ``String[] array = { ``"abc"``, ``"xyz"``,``                    ``"abcd"``, ``"bcd"``, ``"abc"` `};``        ``printInSortedOrder(array);``    ``}` `    ``// function to sort an array``    ``// of strings using Trie``    ``static` `void` `printInSortedOrder(String[] array)``    ``{``        ``Trie trie = ``new` `Trie();``        ` `        ``for` `(``int` `i = 0;i < array.Length;i++)``        ``{``            ``trie.insert(array[i], i);``        ``}``        ` `        ``trie.traversePreorder(array);``    ``}``}` `// This code has been contributed by 29AjayKumar`

## Python3

 `# Python implementation to sort an array``# of strings using Trie``from` `typing ``import` `List``MAX_CHAR ``=` `26``class` `Trie:``    ``def` `__init__(``self``) ``-``> ``None``:` `        ``# 'index' vectors size is greater than``        ``# 0 when node/ is a leaf node, otherwise``        ``# size is 0;``        ``self``.index ``=` `[]``        ``self``.child ``=` `[``None` `for` `_ ``in` `range``(MAX_CHAR)]` `# function to insert a string in trie``def` `insert(root: Trie, string: ``str``, index: ``int``) ``-``> ``None``:``    ``node ``=` `root``    ``for` `i ``in` `range``(``len``(string)):` `        ``# taking ascii value to find index of``        ``# child node``        ``ind ``=` `ord``(string[i]) ``-` `ord``(``'a'``)` `        ``# making a new path if not already``        ``if` `(node.child[ind] ``=``=` `None``):``            ``node.child[ind] ``=` `Trie()` `        ``# go to next node``        ``node ``=` `node.child[ind]` `    ``# Mark leaf (end of string) and store``    ``# index of 'str' in index[]``    ``(node.index).append(index)` `# function for preorder traversal of trie``def` `preorder(node: Trie, arr: ``List``[``str``]) ``-``> ``None``:` `    ``# if node is empty``    ``if` `(node ``=``=` `None``):``        ``return``    ``for` `i ``in` `range``(MAX_CHAR):``        ``if` `(node.child[i] !``=` `None``):` `            ``# if leaf node then print all the strings``            ``# for (node.child[i].index).size() > 0)``            ``for` `j ``in` `range``(``len``(node.child[i].index)):``                ``print``(arr[node.child[i].index[j]], end ``=` `" "``)``            ``preorder(node.child[i], arr)` `# function to sort an array``# of strings using Trie``def` `printSorted(arr: ``List``[``str``], n: ``int``) ``-``> ``None``:``    ``root ``=` `Trie()` `    ``# insert all strings of dictionary into trie``    ``for` `i ``in` `range``(n):``        ``insert(root, arr[i], i)` `    ``# print strings in lexicographic order``    ``preorder(root, arr)` `# Driver program to test above``if` `__name__ ``=``=` `"__main__"``:` `    ``arr ``=` `[``"abc"``, ``"xyz"``, ``"abcd"``, ``"bcd"``, ``"abc"``]``    ``n ``=` `len``(arr)``    ``printSorted(arr, n)` `# This code is contributed by sanjeev2552`

## Javascript

 ``

Output:

`abc abc abcd bcd xyz`

Time Complexity: Worst case occurs when every string is starting with a different character. In that case, it will visit all the nodes of each character of each string. So worst-case time complexity will be the sum of the length of every string i.e. O(|S1| + |S2| + |S3| + … + |Sn|) where |S| is the length of the string.

Auxiliary Space: O((|S1| + |S2| + |S3| + … + |Sn|)*MAX_CHAR)

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