Software Processes in Software Engineering

Software is the set of instructions in the form of programs to govern the computer system and to process the hardware components. To produce a software product the set of activities is used. This set is called a software process.

Components of Software:
There are three components of the software:

  1. Program:
    A computer program is a list of instructions that tell a computer what to do.
  2. Documentation:
    Source information about the product contained in design documents, detailed code comments, etc.
  3. Operating Procedures:
    Set of step-by-step instructions compiled by an organization to help workers carry out complex routine operations.

There are four basic key process activities:



  1. Software Specifications:
    In this process, detailed description of a software system to be developed with its functional and non-functional requirements.
  2. Software Development:
    In this process, designing, programming, documenting, testing, and bug fixing is done.
  3. Software Validation:
    In this process, evaluation software product is done to ensure that the software meets the business requirements as well as the end users needs.
  4. Software Evolution:
    It is a process of developing software initially, then timely updating it for various reasons.

Software Crisis:

  1. Size and Cost:
    Day to day growing complexity and expectation out of software. Software are more expensive and more complex.
  2. Quality:
    Software products must have good quality.
  3. Delayed Delivery:
    Software takes longer than the estimated time to develop, which in turn leads to cost shooting up.

Software Process Model:
A software process model is an abstraction of the actual process, which is being described. It can also be defined as a simplified representation of a software process. Each model represents a process from a specific perspective. Basic software process models on which different type of software process models can be implemented:

  1. A workflow Model:
    It is the sequential series of tasks and decisions that make up a business process.
  2. The Waterfall Model:
    It is a sequential design process in which progress is seen as flowing steadily downwards. Phases in waterfall model:

    • (i) Requirements Specification
    • (ii) Software Design
    • (iii) Implementation
    • (iv) Testing


  3. Dataflow Model:
    It is diagrammatic representation of the flow and exchange of information within a system.

  4. Evolutionary Development Model:
    Following activities are considered in this method:

    • (i) Specification
    • (ii) Development
    • (iii) Validation


  5. Role / Action Model:
    Roles of the people involved in the software process and the activities.


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