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Software Engineering | COCOMO II Model
  • Difficulty Level : Hard
  • Last Updated : 11 Mar, 2019

COCOMO-II is the revised version of the original Cocomo (Constructive Cost Model) and is developed at University of Southern California. It is the model that allows one to estimate the cost, effort and schedule when planning a new software development activity.

It consists of three sub-models:

1. End User Programming:
Application generators are used in this sub-model. End user write the code by using these application generators.
Example – Spreadsheets, report generator, etc.

2. Intermediate Sector:



  • (a). Application Generators and Composition Aids –
    This category will create largely prepackaged capabilities for user programming. Their product will have many reusable components. Typical firms operating in this sector are Microsoft, Lotus,
    Oracle, IBM, Borland, Novell.

  • (b). Application Composition Sector –
    This category is too diversified and to be handled by prepackaged solutions. It includes GUI, Databases, domain specific components such as financial, medical or industrial process control packages.

  • (c). System Integration –
    This category deals with large scale and highly embedded systems.

3. Infrastructure Sector:
This category provides infrastructure for the software development like Operating System, Database Management System, User Interface Management System, Networking System, etc.

Stages of COCOMO II:

  1. Stage-I:
    It supports estimation of prototyping. For this it uses Application Composition Estimation Model. This model is used for the prototyping stage of application generator and system integration.

  2. Stage-II:
    It supports estimation in the early design stage of the project, when we less know about it. For this it uses Early Design Estimation Model. This model is used in early design stage of application generators, infrastructure, system integration.

  3. Stage-III:
    It supports estimation in the post architecture stage of a project. For this it uses Post Architecture Estimation Model. This model is used after the completion of the detailed architecture of application generator, infrastructure, system integration.

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