Simplified Data Encryption Standard (S-DES) is a simple version of the DES Algorithm. It is similar to the DES algorithm but is a smaller algorithm and has fewer parameters than DES. It was made for educational purposes so that understanding DES would become simpler. It is a block cipher that takes a block of plain text and converts it into ciphertext. It takes a block of 8 bit.

It is a symmetric key cipher i.e. they use the same key for both encryption and decryption. In this article, we are going to demonstrate key generation for s-des encryption and decryption algorithm. We take a random 10-bit key and produce two 8-bit keys which will be used for encryption and decryption.

**Key Generation Concept: **In the key generation algorithm, we accept the 10-bit key and convert it into two 8 bit keys. This key is shared between both sender and receiver.

**In the key generation, we use three functions:**

**1. Permutation P10**

**2. Permutation P8**

**3. Left Shift**

**Step 1: **We accepted a 10-bit key and permuted the bits by putting them in the P10 table.

Key = 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 (k1, k2, k3, k4, k5, k6, k7, k8, k9, k10) = (1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0) P10 Permutation is: P10(k1, k2, k3, k4, k5, k6, k7, k8, k9, k10) = (k3, k5, k2, k7, k4, k10, k1, k9, k8, k6) After P10, we get 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0

**Step 2: **We divide the key into 2 halves of 5-bit each.

l=1 0 0 0 0, r=0 1 1 0 0

**Step 3: **Now we apply one bit left-shift on each key.

l = 0 0 0 0 1, r = 1 1 0 0 0

**Step 4: **Combine both keys after step 3 and permute the bits by putting them in the P8 table. The output of the given table is the first key K1.

After LS-1 combined, we get 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 P8 permutation is: P8(k1, k2, k3, k4, k5, k6, k7, k8, k9, k10) = (k6, k3, k7, k4, k8, k5, k10, k9) After P8, we get Key-1 : 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0

**Step 5: **The output obtained from step 3 i.e. 2 halves after one bit left shift should again undergo the process of two-bit left shift.

Step 3 output - l = 0 0 0 0 1, r = 1 1 0 0 0 After two bit shift - l = 0 0 1 0 0, r = 0 0 0 1 1

**Step 6: **Combine the 2 halves obtained from step 6 and permute them by putting them in the P8 table. The output of the given table is the second key K2.

After LS-2 combined = 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 P8 permutation is: P8(k1, k2, k3, k4, k5, k6, k7, k8, k9, k10) = (k6, k3, k7, k4, k8, k5, k10, k9) After P8, we get Key-2 : 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1

**Final Output:**

Key-1 is: 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 Key-2 is: 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1

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