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Simple Recursive solution to check whether BST contains dead end

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  • Difficulty Level : Medium
  • Last Updated : 01 Aug, 2022
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Given a Binary Search Tree that contains positive integer values greater than 0. The task is to check whether the BST contains a dead end or not. Here Dead End means, we are not able to insert any integer element after that node.

Examples: 

Input :        8
             /   \
           5      9
         /   \
        2     7
       /
      1
Output : Yes
Explanation : Node "1" is the dead End because
         after that we cant insert any element.

Input :       8
            /   \
           7     10
         /      /   \
        2      9     13

Output :Yes
Explanation : We can't insert any element at
              node 9.

We have discussed a solution in below post.
Check whether BST contains Dead End or not
The idea in this post is based on method 3 of Check if a binary tree is BST or not.

First of all, it is given that it is a BST and nodes are greater than zero, root node can be in the range [1, ∞] and if root val is say, val, then left sub-tree can have the value in the range [1, val-1] and right sub-tree the value in range [val+1, ∞]. 

we need to traverse recursively and when the min and max value of range coincided it means that we cannot add any node further in the tree. 
Hence we encounter a dead end. 

Following is the simple recursive solution to the problem. 

C++




// CPP Program to check if there is a dead end
// in BST or not.
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
 
// A BST node
struct Node {
    int data;
    struct Node *left, *right;
};
 
// A utility function to create a new node
Node* newNode(int data)
{
    Node* temp = new Node;
    temp->data = data;
    temp->left = temp->right = NULL;
    return temp;
}
 
/* A utility function to insert a new Node
  with given key in BST */
struct Node* insert(struct Node* node, int key)
{
    /* If the tree is empty, return a new Node */
    if (node == NULL)
        return newNode(key);
 
    /* Otherwise, recur down the tree */
    if (key < node->data)
        node->left = insert(node->left, key);
    else if (key > node->data)
        node->right = insert(node->right, key);
 
    /* return the (unchanged) Node pointer */
    return node;
}
 
// Returns true if tree with given root contains
// dead end or not. min and max indicate range
// of allowed values for current node. Initially
// these values are full range.
bool deadEnd(Node* root, int min=1, int max=INT_MAX)
{
    // if the root is null or the recursion moves
    // after leaf node it will return false
    // i.e no dead end.
    if (!root)
        return false;
 
    // if this occurs means dead end is present.
    if (min == max)
        return true;
 
    // heart of the recursion lies here.
    return deadEnd(root->left, min, root->data - 1) ||
           deadEnd(root->right, root->data + 1, max);
}
 
// Driver program
int main()
{
    /*   8
       /   \
      5    11
     /  \
    2    7
     \
      3
       \
        4 */
    Node* root = NULL;
    root = insert(root, 8);
    root = insert(root, 5);
    root = insert(root, 2);
    root = insert(root, 3);
    root = insert(root, 7);
    root = insert(root, 11);
    root = insert(root, 4);
    if (deadEnd(root) == true)
        cout << "Yes " << endl;
    else
        cout << "No " << endl;
    return 0;
}

Java




// Java Program to check if there
// is a dead end in BST or not.
class BinarySearchTree {
 
    // Class containing left and right
    // child of current node and key value
    class Node {
        int data;
        Node left, right;
 
        public Node(int item) {
            data = item;
            left = right = null;
        }
    }
 
    // Root of BST
    Node root;
 
    // Constructor
    BinarySearchTree() {
        root = null;
    }
 
    // This method mainly calls insertRec()
    void insert(int data) {
    root = insertRec(root, data);
    }
 
    // A recursive function
    // to insert a new key in BST
    Node insertRec(Node root, int data) {
 
        // If the tree is empty,
        // return a new node
        if (root == null) {
            root = new Node(data);
            return root;
        }
 
        /* Otherwise, recur down the tree */
        if (data < root.data)
            root.left = insertRec(root.left, data);
        else if (data > root.data)
            root.right = insertRec(root.right, data);
 
        /* return the (unchanged) node pointer */
        return root;
    }
 
// Returns true if tree with given root contains
// dead end or not. min and max indicate range
// of allowed values for current node. Initially
// these values are full range.
boolean deadEnd(Node root, int min, int max)
{
    // if the root is null or the recursion moves
    // after leaf node it will return false
    // i.e no dead end.
    if (root==null)
        return false;
 
    // if this occurs means dead end is present.
    if (min == max)
        return true;
 
    // heart of the recursion lies here.
    return deadEnd(root.left, min, root.data - 1)||
                deadEnd(root.right, root.data + 1, max);
}
 
 
    // Driver Program
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        BinarySearchTree tree = new BinarySearchTree();
 
        /*       8
               /   \
              5    11
             /  \
            2    7
             \
              3
               \
                4 */
        tree.insert(8);
        tree.insert(5);
        tree.insert(2);
        tree.insert(3);
        tree.insert(7);
        tree.insert(11);
        tree.insert(4);
 
        if (tree.deadEnd(tree.root ,1 ,
                Integer.MAX_VALUE) == true)
 
        System.out.println("Yes ");
        else
        System.out.println("No " );
    }
}
 
// This code is contributed by Gitanjali.

Python3




# Python 3 Program to check if there
# is a dead end in BST or not.
 
class Node:
 
    # Constructor to create a new node
    def __init__(self, data):
        self.data = data
        self.left = None
        self.right = None
         
# A utility function to insert a
# new Node with given key in BST
def insert(node, key):
     
    # If the tree is empty,
    # return a new Node
    if node == None:
        return Node(key)
 
    # Otherwise, recur down the tree
    if key < node.data:
        node.left = insert(node.left, key)
    elif key > node.data:
        node.right = insert(node.right, key)
 
    # return the (unchanged) Node pointer
    return node
 
# Returns true if tree with given
# root contains dead end or not.
# min and max indicate range
# of allowed values for current node.
# Initially these values are full range.
def deadEnd(root, Min, Max):
     
    # if the root is null or the recursion
    # moves after leaf node it will return 
    # false i.e no dead end.
    if root == None:
        return False
 
    # if this occurs means dead
    # end is present.
    if Min == Max:
        return True
 
    # heart of the recursion lies here.
    return (deadEnd(root.left, Min, root.data - 1) or
            deadEnd(root.right, root.data + 1, Max))
 
# Driver Code
if __name__ == '__main__':
     
    #         8
    #     / \
    #     5 11
    #     / \
    # 2 7
    #     \
    #     3
    #     \
    #     4
    root = None
    root = insert(root, 8)
    root = insert(root, 5)
    root = insert(root, 2)
    root = insert(root, 3)
    root = insert(root, 7)
    root = insert(root, 11)
    root = insert(root, 4)
    if deadEnd(root, 1, 9999999999) == True:
        print("Yes")
    else:
        print("No")
 
# This code is contributed by PranchalK

C#




using System;
 
// C# Program to check if there
// is a dead end in BST or not.
public class BinarySearchTree
{
 
    // Class containing left and right
    // child of current node and key value
    public class Node
    {
        private readonly BinarySearchTree outerInstance;
 
        public int data;
        public Node left, right;
 
        public Node(BinarySearchTree outerInstance, int item)
        {
            this.outerInstance = outerInstance;
            data = item;
            left = right = null;
        }
    }
 
    // Root of BST
    public Node root;
 
    // Constructor
    public BinarySearchTree()
    {
        root = null;
    }
 
    // This method mainly calls insertRec()
    public virtual void insert(int data)
    {
    root = insertRec(root, data);
    }
 
    // A recursive function
    // to insert a new key in BST
    public virtual Node insertRec(Node root, int data)
    {
 
        // If the tree is empty,
        // return a new node
        if (root == null)
        {
            root = new Node(this, data);
            return root;
        }
 
        /* Otherwise, recur down the tree */
        if (data < root.data)
        {
            root.left = insertRec(root.left, data);
        }
        else if (data > root.data)
        {
            root.right = insertRec(root.right, data);
        }
 
        /* return the (unchanged) node pointer */
        return root;
    }
 
// Returns true if tree with given root contains
// dead end or not. min and max indicate range
// of allowed values for current node. Initially
// these values are full range.
public virtual bool deadEnd(Node root, int min, int max)
{
    // if the root is null or the recursion moves
    // after leaf node it will return false
    // i.e no dead end.
    if (root == null)
    {
        return false;
    }
 
    // if this occurs means dead end is present.
    if (min == max)
    {
        return true;
    }
 
    // heart of the recursion lies here.
    return deadEnd(root.left, min, root.data - 1) || deadEnd(root.right, root.data + 1, max);
}
 
 
    // Driver Program
    public static void Main(string[] args)
    {
        BinarySearchTree tree = new BinarySearchTree();
 
        /*       8
               /   \
              5    11
             /  \
            2    7
             \
              3
               \
                4 */
        tree.insert(8);
        tree.insert(5);
        tree.insert(2);
        tree.insert(3);
        tree.insert(7);
        tree.insert(11);
        tree.insert(4);
 
        if (tree.deadEnd(tree.root,1, int.MaxValue) == true)
        {
 
        Console.WriteLine("Yes ");
        }
        else
        {
        Console.WriteLine("No ");
        }
    }
}
 
  // This code is contributed by Shrikant13

Javascript




<script>
// javascript Program to check if there
// is a dead end in BST or not.
 
    // Class containing left and right
    // child of current node and key value
    class Node {
        constructor(val) {
            this.data = val;
            this.left = null;
            this.right = null;
        }
    }
 
    // Root of BST
    var root = null;
 
    // This method mainly calls insertRec()
    function insert(data) {
    root = insertRec(root, data);
    }
 
    // A recursive function
    // to insert a new key in BST
    function insertRec(root , data) {
 
        // If the tree is empty,
        // return a new node
        if (root == null) {
            root = new Node(data);
            return root;
        }
 
        /* Otherwise, recur down the tree */
        if (data < root.data)
            root.left = insertRec(root.left, data);
        else if (data > root.data)
            root.right = insertRec(root.right, data);
 
        /* return the (unchanged) node pointer */
        return root;
    }
 
// Returns true if tree with given root contains
// dead end or not. min and max indicate range
// of allowed values for current node. Initially
// these values are full range.
function deadEnd(root , min , max)
{
    // if the root is null or the recursion moves
    // after leaf node it will return false
    // i.e no dead end.
    if (root==null)
        return false;
 
    // if this occurs means dead end is present.
    if (min == max)
        return true;
 
    // heart of the recursion lies here.
    return deadEnd(root.left, min, root.data - 1)||
                deadEnd(root.right, root.data + 1, max);
}   // Driver Program
     
 
        /*       8
               /   \
              5    11
             /  \
            2    7
             \
              3
               \
                4 */
        insert(8);
        insert(5);
        insert(2);
        insert(3);
        insert(7);
        insert(11);
        insert(4);
 
        if (deadEnd(root ,1 ,
                Number.MAX_VALUE) == true)
 
        document.write("Yes ");
        else
        document.write("No " );
 
// This code contributed by Rajput-Ji
</script>

Output

Yes 

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