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Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission

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  • Last Updated : 14 Sep, 2022
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The Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Rurban Mission (SPMRM) also named National Rurban Mission (NRuM) aims to promote infrastructure, social, and economic growth in rural areas by creating a collection of 300 Smart Villages across our nation and inclusivity without compromising services perceived to be largely urban in nature, resulting in a cluster of “Rurban Villages.” Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched the initiative on February 21, 2016, with the goal of delivering catalytic interventions to rural communities on the threshold of growth. 

Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission (SPMRM):

  • In 2016, the Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD) launched the initiative.
  • The mission’s primary objective is to bridge the gap between rural and urban communities by giving equal access to facilities, technology, and social and economic growth.
  • The Mission’s goal is to develop 300 Rurban clusters in five years.
  • The National Rurban Mission (NRuM) helps to encourage local economic growth, provide basic services, and create well-planned Rurban clusters.
  • Rurban areas are defined by SPMRM as a cluster of 15-20 villages with a population of 30 to 40 lakh people. 
  • Rurban clusters are found all throughout the country’s rural areas, showing indicators of urbanisation that are becoming more apparent, such as an increase in population density, high non-farm employment rates, the existence of expanding economic activity, and other socioeconomic factors.
  • .These clusters would be strengthened with the necessary facilities, for which resources would be generated through the convergence of several government programs.
  • SPMRM is consistent with the Provision of Urban Amenities to Rural Areas (PURA) program, which was initiated in 2003.

Background

  • According to the Census of India, India’s rural population is 833 million, accounting for over 68 percent of the total population.
  • Additionally, the rural population increased by 12% between 2001 and 2011, while the total number of villages increased.
  • About 50% of the labour force is still reliant on the underproductive agricultural sector, while about 70% of the population lives in rural areas.
  • Around 14 percent of the country’s GDP is contributed by agriculture, while 26 percent and 60 percent, respectively, are provided by industry and services (which employ individuals who live in urban regions).
  • The majority of rural areas in the nation are made up of clusters of settlements rather than isolated communities that are relatively close to one another. These clusters typically feature economic drivers, growth potential, and locational and competitive advantages.

Objectives of Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission:

The mission’s objectives are to bridge the rural-urban gap in economic, technological, and facility and service areas. For this,

1. It focuses on infrastructure by providing:

  • 24-hour water supply
  • Household and cluster-level solid and liquid waste management facilities
  • Inter- and intra-village routes within the cluster
  • Street lighting installation
  • Transportation infrastructures that use green technology 

2. A cluster’s economic amenities include numerous thematic areas in the industries of Agri-services and Processing, Tourism, and Skill Development to boost Small and Medium Scale Enterprises.

3. Other essential factors include:

  • Sanitation
  • Drainage Access to Village Streets
  • Processing of Agri-Services and Related Activities
  • Digital Literacy and Education
  • Sporting Events and Social Infrastructure
  • Environmentally Friendly 

Key Points of Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission:

Rurban Clusters: Under the National Rurban Mission, there will be two types of clusters: non-tribal and tribal. Each of these categories has a different selection method. 

  • A major village or gram panchayat, which are growth hubs with resources nearby that might potentially lead those clusters to economic transformation, may be seen by the States while choosing the Rurban group. Census towns or block headquarters villages could potentially be considered as growth centres.
  • Identifying physically adjacent villages or gram panchayats within a radius of 5 to 10 km, or based on the radius appropriate to the topography or population density of the area around the designated growth centre, would be used to create the Non-Tribal and Tribal clusters.

Funding: The mission is a government-sponsored initiative. The Mission has two funding streams: 

  • Convergence through different central sector schemes, centrally sponsored schemes, state sector/sponsored schemes/programs, and CSR monies.
  • Critical Gap Funding (CGF) would be provided under this Mission for the mission-specific development of these clusters.

Role of states: The role of states is to identify clusters in accordance with the Framework for Implementation developed by the MoRD. 

  • The MoRD is using a scientific cluster selection method that includes an objective analysis of population, economics, tourist and pilgrimage significance, and transportation corridor impact at the district, sub-district, and village levels. 

Progress of Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission:

The mission targets the development of 300 Rurban clusters in a time-bound way. The progress of the mission is:

  • Out of 300 urban clusters, states and union territories have developed 296 integrated cluster action plans (ICAPs) and 282 detailed project reports (DPRs), costing a total of Rs. 27,788.44 (critical gap fund + convergence fund).
  • The 40,751 (or 55 percent) of the 76,973 scheduled works have already been completed or are nearly finished.
  • The Mission is requesting a two-year extension to finish all listed works.
  • The success of Rurban clusters has prompted NITI Aayog to suggest a new and extended initiative for over 1,000 clusters over the next three years. 

Significance of Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission:

  • The mission will assist in addressing the problem of city overpopulation brought on by the migration of numerous individuals from rural to urban areas in quest of better employment and quality of life.
  • People who currently live in towns may move back to their villages as the villages improve. 
  • Thus, it will assist in achieving the twin goals of enhancing rural areas and relieving urban areas of their burdens, resulting in a balanced and regional expansion of the nation.
  • Along with many components to be installed in each group, the rurban clusters will also contain citizen service centres that will open the door for the electronic delivery of citizen-centric services. 
  • These will liberate rural communities and spur the region’s general growth. Additionally, the Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission includes a budget for innovation to support capacity building, research, and development.

Related Frequently Asked Questions and Answers:

Q1. What is the aim of Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission? 

Answer: The Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Rurban Mission (SPMRM) also named National Rurban Mission (NRuM) aims to promote infrastructure, social, and economic growth in rural areas by creating a collection of 300 Smart Villages across our nation and inclusivity without compromising services perceived to be largely urban in nature, resulting in a cluster of “Rurban Villages.” 

Q2. What are the Two types of Funding Streams? 

Answer: The mission is a government-sponsored initiative. The Mission has two funding streams: 

  • Convergence through different central sector schemes, centrally sponsored schemes, state sector/sponsored schemes/programs, and CSR monies.
  • Critical Gap Funding (CGF) would be provided under this Mission for the mission-specific development of these clusters.

Q3. Explain the Rurban clusters. 

Answer: Rurban Clusters are classified into two types: non-tribal and tribal.

  • Rurban clusters have been identified throughout the country’s rural areas that exhibit rising symptoms of urbanization, such as increased population density, high levels of non-farm employment, the existence of increasing economic activity, and other socioeconomic factors.
  • Rurban areas are defined in SPMRM as a cluster of 15-20 villages with a population of 30 to 40 lakh people. The clusters would consist of physically contiguous Gram Panchayats with populations ranging from 25000 to 50000 in plain and coastal areas and 5000 to 15000 in the desert, hilly, or tribal areas. 

Q4. What are the objectives of Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission? 

Answer: Following are the objectives of Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission:

1. It focuses on infrastructure by providing 24-hour water supply, household and cluster-level solid and liquid waste management facilities, inter-and intra-village routes within the cluster, street lighting installation and transportation infrastructures that use green technology.

2. A cluster’s economic amenities include numerous thematic areas in the industries of Agri Services and Processing, Tourism, and Skill Development to boost Small and Medium Scale Enterprises. 

Q5. When was Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission launched? 

Answer: Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched the initiative on February 21, 2016, with the primary objective to bridge the gap between rural and urban communities by giving equal access to facilities, technology, and social and economic growth.


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