SHA in Python

SHA, ( Secure Hash Algorithms ) are set of cryptographic hash functions defined by the language to be used for various applications such as password security etc. Some variants of it are supported by Python in the “hashlib” library. These can be found using “algorithms_guaranteed” function of hashlib.

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# Python 3 code to check 
# available algorithms
  
import hashlib
  
# prints all available algorithms
print ("The available algorithms are : ", end ="")
print (hashlib.algorithms_guaranteed)

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Output:

The available algorithms are : {'sha256', 'sha384', 'sha224', 'sha512', 'sha1', 'md5'}

To proceed with, lets first discuss the functions going to be used in this article.

Functions associated :

  • encode() : Converts the string into bytes to be acceptable by hash function.
  • hexdigest() : Returns the encoded data in hexadecimal format.
SHA Hash

The different SHA hash functions are explained below.

  • SHA256 : This hash function belong to hash class SHA-2, the internal block size of it is 32 bits.
  • SHA384 : This hash function belong to hash class SHA-2, the internal block size of it is 32 bits. This is one of the truncated version.
  • SHA224 : This hash function belong to hash class SHA-2, the internal block size of it is 32 bits. This is one of the truncated version.
  • SHA512 : This hash function belong to hash class SHA-2, the internal block size of it is 64 bits.
  • SHA1 : The 160 bit hash function that resembles MD5 hash in working and was discontinued to be used seeing its security vulnerabilities.

Below code implements these hash functions.

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# Python 3 code to demonstrate
# SHA hash algorithms.
  
import hashlib
  
# initializing string
str = "GeeksforGeeks"
  
# encoding GeeksforGeeks using encode()
# then sending to SHA256()
result = hashlib.sha256(str.encode())
  
# printing the equivalent hexadecimal value.
print("The hexadecimal equivalent of SHA256 is : ")
print(result.hexdigest())
  
print ("\r")
  
# initializing string
str = "GeeksforGeeks"
  
# encoding GeeksforGeeks using encode()
# then sending to SHA384()
result = hashlib.sha384(str.encode())
  
# printing the equivalent hexadecimal value.
print("The hexadecimal equivalent of SHA384 is : ")
print(result.hexdigest())
  
print ("\r")
  
# initializing string
str = "GeeksforGeeks"
  
# encoding GeeksforGeeks using encode()
# then sending to SHA224()
result = hashlib.sha224(str.encode())
  
# printing the equivalent hexadecimal value.
print("The hexadecimal equivalent of SHA224 is : ")
print(result.hexdigest())
  
print ("\r")
  
# initializing string
str = "GeeksforGeeks"
  
# encoding GeeksforGeeks using encode()
# then sending to SHA512()
result = hashlib.sha512(str.encode())
  
# printing the equivalent hexadecimal value.
print("The hexadecimal equivalent of SHA512 is : ")
print(result.hexdigest())
  
print ("\r")
  
# initializing string
str = "GeeksforGeeks"
  
# encoding GeeksforGeeks using encode()
# then sending to SHA1()
result = hashlib.sha1(str.encode())
  
# printing the equivalent hexadecimal value.
print("The hexadecimal equivalent of SHA1 is : ")
print(result.hexdigest())

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Output:

The hexadecimal equivalent of SHA256 is : 
f6071725e7ddeb434fb6b32b8ec4a2b14dd7db0d785347b2fb48f9975126178f

The hexadecimal equivalent of SHA384 is : 
d1e67b8819b009ec7929933b6fc1928dd64b5df31bcde6381b9d3f90488d253240490460c0a5a1a873da8236c12ef9b3

The hexadecimal equivalent of SHA224 is : 
173994f309f727ca939bb185086cd7b36e66141c9e52ba0bdcfd145d

The hexadecimal equivalent of SHA512 is : 
0d8fb9370a5bf7b892be4865cdf8b658a82209624e33ed71cae353b0df254a75db63d1baa35ad99f26f1b399c31f3c666a7fc67ecef3bdcdb7d60e8ada90b722

The hexadecimal equivalent of SHA1 is : 
4175a37afd561152fb60c305d4fa6026b7e79856

Explanation : The above code takes string and converts it into the byte equivalent using encode() so that it can be accepted by the hash function. The SHA hash functions encode it and then using hexdigest(), hexadecimal equivalent encoded string is printed.



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