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Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIS) of Reproductive Health Class 12

Last Updated : 10 May, 2023
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CBSE Class 12- Reproductive Health- Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIS): Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) or sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are most commonly spread through sexual contact. Bacteria, viruses, and parasites that cause sexually transmitted illnesses can spread from person to person through blood, sperm, vaginal fluid, and other bodily fluids.

These infections can sometimes be spread Non sexually, such as from mothers to their infants during pregnancy or childbirth, or through blood transfusions or sharing needles.

What is STD Disease?

Sexually Transmitted Infection


Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), venereal diseases (VDs), and reproductive tract infections (RTIs) are all terms for diseases or infections spread by sexual contact. It refers to any infection or disease that is spread through sexual contact. These infections can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites, and can affect both males and females.

STDs are spread through sexual contact, including vaginal, anal, and oral sex. They can be passed from person to person even if there are no visible symptoms, which is why it’s important to practice safe sex and get tested regularly if you are sexually active.

Some common STDs include chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, herpes, and HPV. These infections can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, discharge, sores, and bumps. If left untreated, STDs can cause serious health problems, including infertility, pelvic inflammatory disease, and even certain types of cancer.

It’s important to get tested for STDs if you are sexually active, even if you don’t have any symptoms. This can help prevent the spread of infection and ensure that you receive prompt treatment if necessary.

Commonly Widespread Diseases

Some of the most widespread STDs are gonorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes, chlamydiosis, genital warts, trichomoniasis, hepatitis B, and, of course, HIV, which leads to AIDS. HIV infection is the most dangerous of these.

Some of these infections, such as hepatitis B and HIV, can also be transmitted through the sharing of injection needles, surgical instruments, and so on with infected people, blood transfusion, or from an infected mother to the fetus. Other diseases, with the exception of hepatitis B, genital herpes, and HIV infections, are completely curable if detected early and treated properly. Most of these have minimal early signs such as itching, fluid discharge, slight pain, swellings, and so on in the genital region. Infected females are frequently asymptomatic and thus go unnoticed for lengthy periods of time. The absence of minor symptoms in the early stages of infection, as well as the social shame associated with STDs, discourage afflicted people from seeking timely identification and treatment. This can lead to pelvic inflammatory disorders (PID), abortions, stillbirths, ectopic pregnancies, infertility, or even cancer of the reproductive system later in life. STDs pose a significant threat to a healthy society.

As a result, prevention, early detection, and treatment of these disorders are prioritized in reproductive healthcare programs. Though all people are vulnerable to these infections, their frequency has been reported to be particularly high among people aged 15 to 24 years old.

STD Symptoms 

Symptoms of STDs vary in the case of males and females:

Symptoms of STDs in Males

  1. Painful urination: One of the most common symptoms of STDs in males is painful urination. This happens because the infection can irritate the lining of the urethra, making it painful to urinate.
  2. Discharge: Another common symptom of STDs in males is discharge from the penis. This can be white, yellow, or green, and may have a foul odor.
  3. Sores or bumps: STDs can also cause penile sores or pimples. These can be painful or itchy, and they can occur anywhere on the penis, including the tip, shaft, or base.
  4. Swelling or redness: STDs can result in vaginal edema or redness. This is frequently followed by pain or discomfort.

Also Read: Male Reproductive System

Symptoms of STDs in Females:

  1. Painful urination: Females with STDs, like men, may have painful urination. This occurs because the infection can irritate the urethral lining.
  2. Abnormal vaginal discharge: Abnormal vaginal discharge is one of the most common symptoms of STDs in females. This might be white, yellow, or green and has a strong odor.
  3. Pain during sex: STDs can cause pain or discomfort during sex, which can be a sign of infection.
  4. Sores or bumps: STDs can also cause sores or bumps on the genitals. These may be painful or itchy and can appear anywhere on the genitals, including the vulva, vagina, or anus.

Also Read: Female Reproductive System

Prevention Measures from Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)

General awareness about STDs is crucial to control these diseases. The introduction of sex education is important to make awareness among young aged people about sexual practices things. Along with education providing medical facilities is to note by the government.

However, we should follow the line ” Prevention is better than cure.” Following the simple principles stated below, one can be free of these infections:

  1. Avoid having sex with unknown or many partners.
  2. When coitus occurs, always use condoms.
  3. If in doubt, consult a trained doctor for early detection and thorough treatment if the disease is identified. 

FAQs and Sexually Transmitted Infections

Q1: What are sexually transmitted infections (STIs)?


Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are infections that are spread through sexual contact, including vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Common STIs include gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, genital herpes, HIV, and HPV.

Q2: How can I prevent STIs?


The most effective way to prevent STIs is to practice safe sex, which includes using condoms and getting regular STI testing. Avoiding sexual contact with multiple partners and practicing abstinence can also reduce the risk of STIs.

Q3: What are the symptoms of STIs?


The symptoms of STIs vary depending on the type of infection, but may include itching, burning, discharge, sores, pain during urination or sex, and flu-like symptoms. Some people with STIs may not have any symptoms at all.

Q4: What disease is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhea?


Gonorrhea is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae?

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