Search insert position of K in a sorted array

Given a sorted array arr[] consisting of N distinct integers and an integer K, the task is to find the index of K, if it’s present in the array arr[]. Otherwise, find the index where K must be inserted to keep the array sorted.

Examples: 

Input: arr[] = {1, 3, 5, 6}, K = 5
Output: 2
Explanation: Since 5 is found at index 2 as arr[2] = 5, the output is 2.

Input: arr[] = {1, 3, 5, 6}, K = 2
Output: 1
Explanation: Since 2 is not present in the array but can be inserted at index 1 to make the array sorted.

Naive Approach: Follow the steps below to solve the problem:



  • Iterate over every element of the array arr[] and search for integer K.
  • If any array element is found to be equal to K, then print index of K.
  • Otherwise, if any array element is found to be greater than K, print that index as the insert position of K. If no element is found to be exceeding K, K must be inserted after the last array element.

Below is the implementation of above approach :

C++

filter_none

edit
close

play_arrow

link
brightness_4
code

// C++ program for the above approach
 
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
 
// Function to find insert position of K
int find_index(int arr[], int n, int K)
{
    // Traverse the array
    for (int i = 0; i < n; i++)
 
        // If K is found
        if (arr[i] == K)
            return i;
 
        // If current array element
        // exceeds K
        else if (arr[i] > K)
            return i;
 
    // If all elements are smaller
    // than K
    return n;
}
 
// Driver Code
int main()
{
    int arr[] = { 1, 3, 5, 6 };
    int n = sizeof(arr) / sizeof(arr[0]);
    int K = 2;
    cout << find_index(arr, n, K) << endl;
    return 0;
}

chevron_right


Java

filter_none

edit
close

play_arrow

link
brightness_4
code

// Java program for the above approach
import java.io.*;
 
class GFG{
 
// Function to find insert position of K
static int find_index(int[] arr, int n, int K)
{
     
    // Traverse the array
    for(int i = 0; i < n; i++)
     
        // If K is found
        if (arr[i] == K)
            return i;
 
        // If current array element
        // exceeds K
        else if (arr[i] > K)
            return i;
 
    // If all elements are smaller
    // than K
    return n;
}
 
// Driver Code
public static void main(String[] args)
{
    int[] arr = { 1, 3, 5, 6 };
    int n = arr.length;
    int K = 2;
     
    System.out.println(find_index(arr, n, K));
}
}
 
// This code is contributed by akhilsaini

chevron_right


Python3

filter_none

edit
close

play_arrow

link
brightness_4
code

# Python program for the above approach
 
# Function to find insert position of K
def find_index(arr, n, K):
     
    # Traverse the array
    for i in range(n):
         
        # If K is found
        if arr[i] == K:
            return i
             
        # If arr[i] exceeds K
        elif arr[i] > K:
            return i
             
    # If all array elements are smaller
    return n
 
# Driver Code
arr = [1, 3, 5, 6]
n = len(arr)
K = 2
print(find_index(arr, n, K))

chevron_right


C#

filter_none

edit
close

play_arrow

link
brightness_4
code

// C# program for the above approach
using System;
 
class GFG{
 
// Function to find insert position of K
static int find_index(int[] arr, int n, int K)
{
     
    // Traverse the array
    for(int i = 0; i < n; i++)
     
        // If K is found
        if (arr[i] == K)
            return i;
 
        // If current array element
        // exceeds K
        else if (arr[i] > K)
            return i;
 
    // If all elements are smaller
    // than K
    return n;
}
 
// Driver Code
public static void Main()
{
    int[] arr = { 1, 3, 5, 6 };
    int n = arr.Length;
    int K = 2;
     
    Console.WriteLine(find_index(arr, n, K));
}
}
 
// This code is contributed by akhilsaini

chevron_right


Output: 

1



 

Time Complexity: O(N)
Auxiliary Space: O(1)

Efficient Approach: To optimize the above approach, the idea is to use Binary Search. Follow the steps below to solve the problem: 

  • Set start and end as 0 and N – 1, where the start and end variables denote the lower and upper bound of the search space respectively.
  • Calculate mid = (start + end) / 2.
  • If arr[mid] is found to be equal to K, print mid as the required answer.
  • If arr[mid] exceeds K, set low = mid + 1. Otherwise, set high = mid – 1.

Below is the implementation of above approach :

C++

filter_none

edit
close

play_arrow

link
brightness_4
code

// C++ program for the above approach
 
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
 
// Function to find insert position of K
int find_index(int arr[], int n, int K)
{
    // Lower and upper bounds
    int start = 0;
    int end = n - 1;
 
    // Traverse the search space
    while (start <= end) {
        int mid = (start + end) / 2;
 
        // If K is found
        if (arr[mid] == K)
            return mid;
 
        else if (arr[mid] < K)
            start = mid + 1;
 
        else
            end = mid - 1;
    }
 
    // Return insert position
    return end + 1;
}
 
// Driver Code
int main()
{
    int arr[] = { 1, 3, 5, 6 };
    int n = sizeof(arr) / sizeof(arr[0]);
    int K = 2;
    cout << find_index(arr, n, K) << endl;
    return 0;
}

chevron_right


Java

filter_none

edit
close

play_arrow

link
brightness_4
code

// Java program for the above approach
import java.io.*;
 
class GFG{
 
// Function to find insert position of K
static int find_index(int[] arr, int n, int K)
{
     
    // Lower and upper bounds
    int start = 0;
    int end = n - 1;
 
    // Traverse the search space
    while (start <= end)
    {
        int mid = (start + end) / 2;
 
        // If K is found
        if (arr[mid] == K)
            return mid;
 
        else if (arr[mid] < K)
            start = mid + 1;
 
        else
            end = mid - 1;
    }
 
    // Return insert position
    return end + 1;
}
 
// Driver Code
public static void main(String[] args)
{
    int[] arr = { 1, 3, 5, 6 };
    int n = arr.length;
    int K = 2;
     
    System.out.println(find_index(arr, n, K));
}
}
 
// This code is contributed by akhilsaini

chevron_right


Python3

filter_none

edit
close

play_arrow

link
brightness_4
code

# Python program to implement
# the above approach
 
# Function to find insert position of K
def find_index(arr, n, B):
 
    # Lower and upper bounds
    start = 0
    end = n - 1
 
    # Traverse the search space
    while start<= end:
 
        mid =(start + end)//2
 
        if arr[mid] == K:
            return mid
 
        elif arr[mid] < K:
            start = mid + 1
        else:
            end = mid-1
 
    # Return the insert position
    return end + 1
 
# Driver Code
arr = [1, 3, 5, 6]
n = len(arr)
K = 2
print(find_index(arr, n, K))

chevron_right


C#

filter_none

edit
close

play_arrow

link
brightness_4
code

// C# program for the above approach
using System;
 
class GFG{
 
// Function to find insert position of K
static int find_index(int[] arr, int n, int K)
{
     
    // Lower and upper bounds
    int start = 0;
    int end = n - 1;
 
    // Traverse the search space
    while (start <= end)
    {
        int mid = (start + end) / 2;
 
        // If K is found
        if (arr[mid] == K)
            return mid;
 
        else if (arr[mid] < K)
            start = mid + 1;
 
        else
            end = mid - 1;
    }
 
    // Return insert position
    return end + 1;
}
 
// Driver Code
public static void Main()
{
    int[] arr = { 1, 3, 5, 6 };
    int n = arr.Length;
    int K = 2;
     
    Console.WriteLine(find_index(arr, n, K));
}
}
 
// This code is contributed by akhilsaini

chevron_right


Output: 

1



 

Time Complexity: O(log N)
Auxiliary Space: O(1)

Attention reader! Don’t stop learning now. Get hold of all the important DSA concepts with the DSA Self Paced Course at a student-friendly price and become industry ready.




My Personal Notes arrow_drop_up

Check out this Author's contributed articles.

If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to contribute@geeksforgeeks.org. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.

Please Improve this article if you find anything incorrect by clicking on the "Improve Article" button below.



Improved By : akhilsaini