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Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan

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  • Last Updated : 29 Jun, 2022
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Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA)

For Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE)  in a particular time framework, India’s flagship program known as Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) was started. After modifying schemes like District Primary Education Programme, the Atal Bihari Vajpayee government in 2001 started this scheme. Implementation of SSA is done in partnership with State Governments and UT Administrations throughout the entire country. The 86th Amendment made education free and compulsory between the age group 6-14 years and as a result, provided the scheme of SSA with constitutional and legal backing. 
The three Schemes of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA), and Teacher Education (TE) are included under Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan in 2018.

Objectives of the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan:

  • Start new schools in places where there is a lack of schools.
  • To upgrade and strengthen the skills and capacity of the teaching staff.
  • To improve the status of women in society, the scheme aims at promoting girls’ education.
  • To provide computer education to the children under the scheme to lessen the digital gap.
  • To upgrade the infrastructure and facilities of the schools. 
  • To provide additional toilets, drinking facilities, and classrooms.
  • To include the imparting of life skills to the students along with the quality education.
  • To acknowledge the education-related needs of the traditionally excluded groups.
  • To provide additional teachers in those schools where there is a lack of teachers.
  • To make available uniforms and free textbooks to the students in the schools.
  • To make education accessible to the children with special needs and those who are differently abled.

Features of the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan:

  1. The program is made to implement universal elementary education within a particular time framework.
  2. It can be considered as an opportunity aimed at promoting social justice through basics.
  3. This program is in response to the increasing demand for a better quality of basic education throughout the country.
  4. Politically, there is a will for the existence of universal elementary education in India.
  5. States also got the opportunity to develop the vision of elementary education in their own way.
  6. This program is a collaboration of the Union, State and the Local government.
  7. In the management of elementary schools, the involvement of grassroots level structures and Parent’s Teachers’ Associations, Mother-Teacher Associations, Tribal Autonomous Councils, etc. is there. 

Initiatives Under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan:

  1.  Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat: The program aims to enhance the writing and reading skills of children studying in classes 1 and 2 and also to improve their mathematical skills.
  2. Shagun portal: It was started in 2017 to monitor the progress of the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan.
  3. Shaala– Siddhi: It is also known as School Standard Evaluation Programme. It aids to achieve the goals of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan.
  4. Swachh Vidyalaya: This program aims to ensure that all the schools must have proper hygiene, drinking, and sanitation facilities.
  5. Rashtriya Avishkar Abhiyan (RAA): It was started in 2015 and it motivates children to study Science, Mathematics, and Technology.
  6. Vidyanjali Scheme: It is one of the online platforms that engage volunteers from government schools to teach students- reading and storytelling.

Significance of the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan: 

The importance of the SSA cannot be denied. It is listed as follows:

  • Free and compulsory education is provided to the children.
  • In the long run, the gap between rich and poor will get reduced.
  • A base is provided to the citizens which will ultimately result in enhancing the quality of the future citizens of India.
  • More job opportunities and services will be created for the teachers, etc.

Loopholes in the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan: 

There are a lot of shortcomings that can be witnessed in the SSA:

  1. According to the ASER reports of NGO Pratham, 78% of the students of 3rd class and 50% of 5th class are unable to read the text of class 2nd.
  2. To cater to the RTE norms of the student-teacher ratios, there is still a need for additional 689000 teachers in primary schools. This shows a shortage of teachers at many levels. 
  3. There is a lack of accountability in Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan which leads to poor learning and low attendance rates.
  4. Drop out rate in the country is very high. About 1.4 million students drop out of schooling between the age of  6-11 years.

Related Frequently Asked Questions and Answers:

Q1. What are the objectives of the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan?
Answer– The objectives of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan are-

1) Start new schools in places where there is a lack of schools.
2) To upgrade and strengthen the skills and capacity of the teaching staff.
3) To improve the status of women in society, the scheme aims at promoting girls’ education.
4) To provide computer education to the children under the scheme to lessen the digital gap.
5) To upgrade the infrastructure and facilities of the schools. 
6) To provide additional toilets, drinking facilities, and classrooms.

Q2. Mention initiatives under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan.
Answer– Following are the initiatives under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan-

  1. Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat: The program aims to enhance the writing and reading skills of children studying in classes 1 and 2 and also to improve their mathematical skills.
  2. Shagun portal: It was started in 2017 to monitor the progress of the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan.
  3. Shaala– Siddhi: It is also known as School Standard Evaluation Programme. It aids to achieve the goals of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan.
  4. Swachh Vidyalaya: This program aims to ensure that all the schools must have proper hygiene, drinking, and sanitation facilities.
  5. Rashtriya Avishkar Abhiyan (RAA): It was started in 2015 and it motivates children to study Science, Mathematics, and Technology.
  6.  Vidyanjali Scheme: It is one of the online platforms that engage volunteers of the government schools to teach students- reading and storytelling.

Q3. State the significance of the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan.
Answer– The importance of the SSA cannot be denied. It is listed as follows:

  1. Free and compulsory education is provided to the children.
  2. In the long run, the gap between rich and poor will get reduced.
  3. A base is provided to the citizens which will ultimately result in enhancing the quality of the future citizens of India.
  4. More job opportunities and services will be created for the teachers, etc.

Q4. What are the shortcomings of the SSA?
Answer- There are a lot of shortcomings that can be witnessed in the SSA.
1) According to the ASER reports of NGO Pratham, 78% of the students of 3rd class and 50% of 5th class are unable to read the text of class 2nd.
2) To cater to the RTE norms of the student-teacher ratios, there is still a need for additional 689000 teachers in primary schools. This shows a shortage of teachers at many levels. 
3) There is a lack of accountability in Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan which leads to poor learning and low attendance rates.
4) Drop out rate in the country is very high. About 1.4 million students drop out of schooling between the age of  6-11 years.

 


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