Government is a system or entity comprised of individuals who run a country or state. The government operates in accordance with the country’s constitution. The Constitution is a set of fundamental laws and concepts created with the goal of ensuring good governance. These rules assist the government in carrying out all actions relating to social law, order, welfare, defense, education, and the country’s or state’s financial policies.
Roles of Government
Levels of Government
A government’s responsibilities are limitless. The government must delegate certain obligations to various levels of subordinate authorities in order to successfully accomplish them. Varying countries have different levels of responsibility management. In India, for example, the federal government delegated its powers to several state governments. The state government delegated its responsibilities to several municipal bodies and panchayats. Such levels of task allocation enable the country’s rules to be properly implemented.
Types of Government
Autocracy, democracy, and oligarchy are the three types of government. Various countries around the world adopt one of the three systems of government. India, for example, is a democratic nation. Other countries, on the other hand, may not be democratic. Let’s take a look at each one separately.
Democracy is a political system in which citizens elect their own government. They elect representatives who will make up the government. Different groups of people from various parties participate in a democracy. The formation of these parties is not based on race, class, or income. Every citizen has the right to vote for the representatives they want to represent them. Before the election, the parties present their platforms. Citizens vote based on whether or not they agree with these manifestos. Different responsibilities are distributed among the elected officials. Different types of democracy occur even inside a democracy. A republic, presidential system, parliamentary system, or constitutional monarchy are some of them.
A system in which a single power dominates over the entire state is known as an autocracy. The state’s residents have no voice in selecting who controls the reins of power. Autocracy is usually founded on hierarchy, with a royal family ruling a country for numerous generations. Monarchy is another term for autocracy. A monarch’s powers cannot be governed or limited by legislation. Absolute monarchies include Saudi Arabia, Oman, and Brunei, to name a few. Other monarchies have emerged in recent years. Constitutional monarchies, symbolic monarchies, and crowned republics are among them. The monarch must follow a set of laws, whether written or unwritten, in such a society. Autocracy also includes dictatorship, which can be either civilian (as in Adolf Hitler) or military (as in the case of the Soviet Union) (for example, Saddam Hussein).
Only a few citizens have the right to vote in an oligarchy. It differs from autocracy in that voting takes place and power is concentrated in the hands of a few people. Aristocracy is another name for it. The right to vote is based on nobles (aristocracy), riches (plutocracy), honor (timocracy), and technicalities, among other things (technocracy).
Roles Played by Public Sector in the Indian Economy
- Generation of Income: The public sector in India has played an important role in generating revenue for the economy.
- Capital Formation: The government has had a considerable impact on the country’s gross domestic capital output.
- Employment: The public sector contributes significantly to the creation of jobs in the country. Employment in public sector economic enterprises, including those run by the federal government, state governments, and local governments. In 1971, the public sector employed around 11 million people; however, by 2003, that figure had risen to 18.6 million, representing a 69 percent growth.
- Infrastructure: Economic progress is impossible without infrastructure development. Infrastructure investment by the public sector in areas such as power, transportation, communication, basic and heavy industries, irrigation, and education.
- Strong Industrial base: Another important contribution of the public sector has been the effective establishment of the country’s solid industrial foundation. The expansion of public sector firms in varied disciplines like iron and steel, coal, heavy engineering, heavy electrical machinery, petroleum and natural gas, fertilizers, chemicals, and medicines has greatly reinforced the economy’s industrial backbone.
- Contribution to Central Exchequer: The central exchequer receives a significant amount of revenue from public sector firms in the form of dividends, excise duty, customs duty, corporate taxes, and other sources.
- Removal of Regional Disparities: From the beginning, India’s industrial development was heavily tilted toward large port towns such as Mumbai, Kolkata, and Chennai. The public sector attempted to disperse various units towards backward areas such as Bihar, Orissa, and Madhya Pradesh in order to reduce regional inequities.
The Indian Constitution establishes the roles and responsibilities of each government level. The central government, for example, is responsible for the country’s defense and currency creation. All of these responsibilities are spelled out in our constitution. A government’s list of obligations and tasks is seemingly limitless. All three types of government have obligations that are nearly identical.
- First and foremost, the government is charged with maintaining the country’s law and order. They must provide the funding to establish an effective and capable police force, a judicial system that serves all citizens fairly, and a well-trained defense force. For all three levels of government, the security system is a primary priority.
- After ensuring the security of the highest order, the government must focus on the people’s well-being. To strengthen their economy, they must concentrate on the health, transportation, and infrastructure sectors. Inflation, foreign investments, and foreign reserves will all be factored in some of their projects.
- In addition to the preceding two, the government must prioritize the preservation of nature and the environment. It must be in charge of cleaning national and international waters, maintaining forests, establishing sanctuaries, and reducing air pollution. It must also focus on renewable energy resource investments.
- It is also the government’s responsibility to improve a country’s agricultural sector by enacting required rules and regulations. In a country like India, where agriculture is the primary source of income, it is the government’s responsibility to implement adequate planning and land tenure systems. For the welfare of India’s agricultural sector, the government of India has adopted many steps to address disagreements, conflicts, and inappropriate planning, such as economic subsidies, land reform, and a new tenancy system.
- The Indian government placed a strong emphasis on the development of industrial sectors such as iron, steel, power, and cement in its second five-year plan. To boost growth even further, the Indian government launched the New Industrial Policy in 1991, allowing the private sector to create consumer goods businesses as well as a few heavy technical goods.
- Fiscal policies include taxes and subsidies, as well as all other government policies that affect public revenue and spending. Fiscal policies that are implemented correctly aid in the country’s economic progress. It aids in the control of inflation, capital formation, and market stabilization.
- The importance of trade in the country’s economic success cannot be overstated. The government’s job is to regulate and control trade policy by imposing tariffs, levies, and other measures in order to improve the Balance of Payments position (BOP).
Government Initiatives to Boost All Sectors of Economy
- The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has established a framework for investments that will allow foreign portfolio investors to participate in open offers, buybacks of securities, and disinvestment of shares by the Central and State governments in order to attract more investment into India’s debt and equity markets.
- Opening up Insurance sector: Within the 26 percent FDI cap, FIIs and non-resident Indians (NRIs) would now be eligible to invest in the insurance sector. The guidelines will also apply to insurance brokers, third-party administrators (TPAs), loss assessors, and surveyors, according to a news release from DIPP. The investments can be made in an automated manner.
- Promotion of SMEs: Over the last several years, the Indian government has worked with the industry to create a more dynamic environment for small and medium companies (SMEs) and startups. SMEs in India employ over 40% of the workforce and produce 45 percent of the country’s manufacturing output. The growth of first-generation entrepreneurs in the country is aided by a favorable governmental environment, the expansion of angel funds, and a lively entrepreneurial culture.
- To increase investor confidence, the Cabinet Committee on Investments (CCI) of the UPA government recommended the quick completion of 36 infrastructure projects worth Rs 1,830 billion (US$ 29.28 billion).
Frequently Asked Questions
Q 1. What are the Responsibilities of a Government?
A government’s responsibilities are limitless. They must maintain strict security at the country’s borders as well as within the country. They are responsible for ensuring the social well-being of all citizens. They perform a crucial duty in establishing laws and policies. They must also ensure that the country’s economy is functioning properly. Above all, they must ensure that humans and nature live in harmony. The government has divided its jobs among many levels to ensure proper execution of its responsibilities. Different countries have different procedures in place to carry out these tasks.
Q 2. Name the Three types of Government.
Democracy, autocracy, and oligarchy are the three types of government. Each of the three systems of government is followed by every country on the planet. Democracy is a form of government in which all citizens have equal voting power. All of the government’s departments are overseen by elected officials. A supreme power rules over all parts of a country in an autocracy. Power can be passed down through the generations. Power can also be a factor. A group of citizens has the right to elect their representatives in an oligarchy regime. Citizens are chosen based on a variety of criteria, including wealth, technical knowledge, honor, and so on.
Q 3. Which groups of people are employed in the unorganized sector in rural areas?
Landless agricultural laborer, small and marginal farmers, shopkeepers and weavers, blacksmiths, and others make up the unorganized sector in rural areas.
Q 4. Why is the tertiary sector becoming very important in India? Give any one reason.
The need for fundamental services such as hospitals, educational institutions, post and telegraph services, police stations, and courts is a crucial factor.
Q 5. State any one way to create more employment opportunities in the country.
Identifying, promoting, and locating companies and services in semi-rural locations where a big number of people may be employed might help create new job opportunities.