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Quite a few species of plants and animals are endangered in India. Why?

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  • Last Updated : 24 Jul, 2022
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India is a diverse country, and this diversity is reflected in its flora and fauna. There are many species of plants, animals, mammals, and reptiles. Due to this rich diversity, there are 89 national parks, 18 organic reserves, and 400 wildlife reserves. However, with increasing activities such as hunting and poaching, the threat to this wildlife is increasing. According to a report released by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), India has 6.5% of all wildlife species in the world, including 7.6% of all mammals and 12.6% of all birds. 

It will be a diverse country, and this diversity is reflected in its flora and fauna. There are many species of plants, animals, mammals, and reptiles. Due to this rich diversity, there are 89 national parks, 18 organic reserves, and 400 wildlife reserves. However, with increasing activities such as hunting and poaching, the threat to this wildlife is increasing. According to a report released by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), India has 6.5% of all wildlife species in the world, including 7.6% of all mammals and 12.6% of all birds. 

Endangered Species 

Species that are most likely to become extinct in the near future, either globally or within a particular political jurisdiction. Endangered species can be threatened by factors such as habitat loss, poaching, and invasive species. Endangered species are any species that are threatened with extinction due to rapid and sudden population decline or loss of important habitat. 

In the past, any plant or animal species that were threatened with extinction could be called an endangered species. The need for separate definitions of ‘endangered’ and ‘threatened’ species has led to the development of many different classification systems, each of which includes definitions and criteria for classification. a species according to its risk of extinction. As a general rule, a series of criteria must be analyzed before a species can be classified in one category or another.

Reason for critically endangered species?

According to the IUCN Red List,  critically endangered species are most at risk of extinction. Basically, there are five ways to determine if a particular species is endangered.  

  1. When the species has a limited geographical area.  
  2. Very limited or small populations of less than 50 adults.  
  3. The population has decreased or will decline by more than 80% in the last three generations or the last 10 years. 
  4. If the population is less than 250 individuals and decreases continuously by 25% in a generation or three years.  
  5. There is a strong possibility of extinction in the wild.   Bengal Tiger, Red Panda, Nilgiri Tahr, One-horned Rhino, Snow Leopard, Asian Lion, Black Deer, Red Deer, Indian Biason, Hungul, and many more are endangered animals highest in India.

Species that often face a high risk of extinction are called endangered species

Several species of flora and fauna in India are endangered. Some common causes are outlined below:

  • Mainly due to human greed before the commercial value that plants and animals have.  
  • Humans hunt animals for their hides, horns, and hooves which are in high demand and generate huge profits.  
  • Large-scale deforestation also damages animal habitats and leads to the decline of various tree and plant species. The ecological balance is also disturbed by deforestation, which is considered harmful to animals and plants. 
  • At the same time, factors such as pollution from chemical and industrial wastes, acid deposition, the introduction of exotic species, and reckless deforestation for arable land and subsistence are also thought to be responsible. of imbalance.  Some endangered plant species include ebony, umbrella, Indian mallow, etc. while some endangered animals are Blackbuck, Asiatic lion, Bengal tiger, blue whale, Central Kashmir Vole, and Banteng.

Reasons for loss of endangered species

Habitat loss is one of the main reasons leading to the extinction of species. Today, human intervention plays a big role in the destruction of the natural landscape. Human activities such as cutting down trees provide food and shelter for countless species, mining, and agriculture.  

Overhunting and poaching have devastating and catastrophic effects on animal and fish populations around the world. Pollution such as air pollution, water pollution, and waste pollution, especially in the form of plastic, plays a very important role in endangered animals. Pollution not only poses risks to human health but also affects animals. 

In a strong and warm environment, there is always the correct balance between the number of predators and their prey. Predators are natural enemies of their prey choosing old and sick prey because they cannot keep up with their group. In this scenario, the relationship between them is perfectly healthy because the predators only eat prey that has reached the end of their lifespan. But the problem becomes more apparent when predators wander into such an area, where they will acquire only a small number of their prey.  

Some Ways to Save Endangered Species  

  1. If pollution can be controlled worldwide, it could have major positive effects on animals, fish, and birds around the world. 
  2. To save endangered animals, several breeding programs have been launched. 
  3. Governments, NGOs, and other businesses should act on this worthy cause as this program involves dedicated and special people. 
  4. If hunting and poaching can be controlled, we would be able to save the endangered species 

Frequently Asked Questions

Question 1: What are the reasons leading to the extinction of many plant and animal species?  

Answer:

Species are threatened for two main reasons: loss of habitat and loss of genetic variation.For example, dinosaurs lost their habitat about 65 million years ago.

Question 2: Explain the reason for the endangerment of plant species?

Answer:

Loss of natural plant habitat is almost always the main reason for endangered plants. Fragmentation of habitats into small, fragmented patches also makes it difficult for pollen maters to find  native edible plants.

Question 3: Why are so many animal and bird species extinct?  

Answer:

Natural disasters such as global warming, cooling, and changes in  sea level lead to the extinction of animals and birds. The second reason for the extinction of animals and birds is the expansion of agricultural land, commercial purposes and habitat destruction due to  pollution.

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